Castor oil is produced by pressing ripe seeds that have had their outer covering (hull) removed.Castor oil is used topically to soften skin, bunions and corns; and to dissolve cysts, growths, and warts.Some women put castor oil inside the vagina for birth control or to cause an abortion.You may remember that ricin was found in letters sent to some Congress members and the White House, and in the possession of people linked to terrorist and antigovernment groups. .
Castor Oil: 4 Benefits and Uses
It’s commonly used as an additive in foods, medications, and skin care products, as well as an industrial lubricant and biodiesel fuel component.In ancient Egypt, people burned castor oil as fuel in lamps, used it as a natural remedy to treat ailments like eye irritation, and even took it to stimulate labor in pregnancy ( 1 ).It’s classified as a stimulative laxative, meaning that it increases the movement of the muscles that push material through the intestines, helping clear the bowels.Stimulative laxatives act rapidly and are commonly used to relieve temporary constipation or to clean out the bowel before medical procedures.What’s more, another study demonstrated that castor oil was effective at cleansing people’s bowels before they underwent a noninvasive type of colonoscopy called a colon capsule endoscopy ( 4 ).While castor oil is considered safe in small doses, larger amounts can cause abdominal cramping, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea ( 2 , 5 ).Although it can be used to relieve occasional constipation, castor oil is not recommended as a treatment for long-term health concerns.Also, make sure to speak with a healthcare professional to get their recommendation before using castor oil to treat constipation.Misusing castor oil can lead to dangerous side effects, like electrolyte and acid-base imbalances, which could be life threatening ( 2 ).They act as humectants, which retain moisture by preventing water loss through the outer layer of the skin ( 6 , 7 ).Venelex, a popular ointment used in clinical settings to treat wounds, contains a mixture of castor oil and Peru balsam, a balm derived from the Myroxylon balsamum tree (10).It may help reduce skin inflammation, support healing, and aid in pain reduction in people with wounds ( 12 ).In a 2013 case study, treatment with a spray containing a combination of balsam of Peru, castor oil, and an enzyme called trypsin helped heal an abdominal surgical wound in an 81-year-old man who was unable to tolerate other forms of topical therapy ( 13 ).One study found that soaking contaminated acrylic teeth in a solution containing 10% castor oil for 20 minutes helped reduce the number of C. albicans as well as other harmful bacteria, including Streptococcus mutans and Staphylococcus aureus ( 16 ).Summary Several studies have shown that castor oil may help reduce harmful bacteria and fungi in dentures and may help improve symptoms related to a condition called denture stomatitis, which can cause inflammation in the mouth.This is because castor oil has moisturizing properties, which could help lubricate the hair shaft, increasing flexibility and decreasing the chance of breakage ( 20 ).The study authors suggested that the thickness of the castor oil combined with the women’s very long hair led to sudden felting ( 23 ).Although castor oil is generally considered safe, it can cause adverse reactions and unwanted side effects in some people.In general, you should not consume castor oil to treat any medical condition or symptoms, especially in high doses, unless advised by a physician.Misuse of any laxative, including castor oil, can be dangerous and lead to life threatening electrolyte and acid-base imbalances.If you’re interested in using castor oil to treat any health condition, including constipation, be sure to get advice from a trusted healthcare professional first ( 2 ).
CASTOR BEAN: Overview, Uses, Side Effects, Precautions
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Phytochemical evaluation of the wild and cultivated varieties of Eranda Mula (Roots of Ricinus communis Linn.).Castor bean ingestion and ricin toxicity in a case of attempted suicide.Garry D, Figueroa R, Guillaume J, Cucco V. Use of castor oil in pregnancies at term.Ilavarasan R, Mallika M, Venkataraman S. Toxicological assessment of Ricinus communis Linn root extracts.Preliminary clinical investigation of the contraceptive efficacy and chemical pathological effects of RICOM-1013-J of Ricinus communis var minor on women volunteers.McFarlin BL, Gibson MH, O'Rear J, Harman P. A national survey of herbal preparation use by nurse-midwives for labor stimulation.Palatnick W, Tenenbein M. Hepatotoxicity from castor bean ingestion in a child.Pinelli LA, Montandon AA, Corbi SC, et al. Ricinus communis treatment of denture stomatitis in institutionalised elderly.Steingrub JS, Lopez T, Teres D, et al.
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The plants are chiefly cultivated in India, China, and Brazil, largely as the source of castor oil.The bristly spined bronze-to-red clusters of fruits are attractive but often are removed before they mature, because of the ricin concentrated in their mottled beanlike seeds. .
Castor oil and its derivatives are used in the manufacturing of soaps, lubricants, hydraulic and brake fluids, paints, dyes, coatings, inks, cold-resistant plastics, waxes and polishes, nylon, and perfumes.Structure of the major component of castor oil: triester of glycerol and ricinoleic acid.This functional group causes ricinoleic acid (and castor oil) to be more polar than most fats.Annually, 270,000–360,000 tonnes (600–800 million pounds) of castor oil are produced for a variety of uses.Polyoxyethylated castor oil (e.g., Kolliphor EL) is also used in the food industries.In India, Pakistan, and Nepal, food grains are preserved by the application of castor oil.For example, the legume pigeon pea is commonly available coated in oil for extended storage.Advertisement of castor oil as a medicine by Scott & Bowne Company, 19th century.Castor oil has been used in cosmetic products included in creams and as a moisturizer.Small amounts of castor oil are frequently used in cold-process soap to increase lathering in the finished bar.The average functionality (number of hydroxyl groups per triglyceride molecule) of castor oil is 2.7, so it is widely used as a rigid polyol and in coatings. One particular use is in a polyurethane concrete where a castor-oil emulsion is reacted with an isocyanate (usually polymeric methylene diphenyl diisocyanate) and a cement and construction aggregate.Dehydration of castor oil yields linoleic acids, which do have drying properties.Castor oil can react with other materials to produce other chemical compounds that have numerous applications. Transesterification followed by steam cracking gives undecylenic acid, a precursor to specialized polymer nylon 11, and heptanal, a component in fragrances.Hydrogenation of castor oil saturates the alkenes, giving a waxy lubricant.The production of lithium grease consumes a significant amount of castor oil.Castor oil has been suggested as a lubricant for bicycle pumps because it does not degrade natural rubber seals.World War I aviation rotary engines used castor oil as a primary lubricant, mixed with the fuel.It was used almost universally in rotary-engined Allied aircraft in World War I. Germany had to make do with inferior ersatz oil for its rotary engines, which resulted in poor reliability.One British manufacturer of sleeve-valved four-cycle model engines has stated the "varnish" created by using castor oil in small percentages can improve the pneumatic seal of the sleeve valve, improving such an engine's performance over time.Initiatives to grow more castor for energy production, in preference to other oil crops, are motivated by social considerations.A heavy dose of castor oil could be used as a humiliating punishment for adults.Colonial officials used it in the British Raj (India) to deal with recalcitrant servants. Victims of this treatment did sometimes die, as the dehydrating effects of the oil-induced diarrhea often complicated their recovery from the nightstick beatings they also received along with the castor oil; however, even those victims who survived had to bear the humiliation of the laxative effects resulting from excessive consumption of the oil.
Castor is indigenous to the southeastern Mediterranean Basin, Eastern Africa, and India, but is widespread throughout tropical regions (and widely grown elsewhere as an ornamental plant).The genus Ricinus also exists in zoology, and designates insects (not ticks) which are parasites of birds; this is possible because the names of animals and plants are governed by different nomenclature codes. It has another common name, palm of Christ, or Palma Christi, that derives from castor oil's reputed ability to heal wounds and cure ailments.The variability has been increased by breeders who have selected a range of cultivars for leaf and flower colours, and for oil production.The glossy leaves are 15–45 cm (6–18 in) long, long-stalked, alternate and palmate with five to twelve deep lobes with coarsely toothed segments.The flowers lack petals and are unisexual (male and female) where both types are borne on the same plant (monoecious) in terminal panicle-like inflorescences of green or, in some varieties, shades of red.The fruit is a spiny, greenish (to reddish-purple) capsule containing large, oval, shiny, bean-like, highly poisonous seeds with variable brownish mottling.The pericarp of Ricinus showed central nervous system effects in mice at low doses.Extract of Ricinus communis exhibited acaricidal and insecticidal activities against the adult of Haemaphysalis bispinosa (Acarina: Ixodidae) and hematophagous fly Hippobosca maculata (Diptera: Hippoboscidae).Members of the Bodo tribe of Bodoland in Assam, India, use the leaves of the plant to feed the larvae of muga and endi silkworms.It has historically been popular for lubricating two-stroke engines due to high resistance to heat compared to petroleum-based oils.Although Ricinus communis is indigenous to the southeastern Mediterranean Basin, Eastern Africa, and India, today it is widespread throughout tropical regions. In areas with a suitable climate, castor establishes itself easily where it can become an invasive plant and can often be found on wasteland. However, it can grow well outdoors in cooler climates, at least in southern England, and the leaves do not appear to suffer frost damage in sheltered spots, where it remains evergreen.'Impala' is compact (only 1.2 metres or 3.9 feet tall) with reddish foliage and stems, brightest on the young shoots.'Zanzibarensis' is also tall (2–3 metres or 6.6–9.8 feet), with large, mid-green leaves (50 centimetres or 20 inches long) that have white midribs.It is short (up to 1.2 m or 3 ft 11 in) and has several racemes 'Brigham' is a variety with reduced ricin content adapted for Texas, US.'GCH6' was developed by Sardarkrushinagar Dantiwada University, India, 2004: it is resistant to root rot and tolerant to fusarium wilt.It is also used as a food plant by the larvae of some other species of Lepidoptera, including Hypercompe hambletoni and the nutmeg (Discestra trifolii).The castor oil plant produces abundant amounts of very light pollen, which easily become airborne and can be inhaled into the lungs, triggering allergic reactions.Although the lethal dose in adults is considered to be four to eight seeds, reports of actual poisoning are relatively rare. Symptoms of overdosing on ricin, which can include nausea, diarrhea, tachycardia, hypotension and seizures, persist for up to a week.These include a burning sensation in mouth and throat, abdominal pain, purging and bloody diarrhea. Partitioned h-hexane fraction of Ricinus root methanol extract resulted in enrichment of two triterpenes: lupeol and urs-6-ene-3,16-dione (erandone).Leading producing areas are India (with over three-quarters of the global yield), China and Mozambique, and it is widely grown as a crop in Ethiopia.Top ten castor oil seed producers – 2019 Country Production (Tonnes) Footnote India 1,196,680 Mozambique 85,089 F China 36,000 * Brazil 16,349 Ethiopia 11,157 * Vietnam 7,000 * South Africa 6,721 F Paraguay 6,000 * Thailand 1,588 * Pakistan 1,107 * World 1,407,588 A No symbol = official figure, F = FAO estimate, * = Unofficial/Semi-official/mirror data, A = Aggregate (may include official, semi-official or estimates).In rural areas, the abundant seeds are used by children for slingshot balls, as they have the right weight, size, and hardness.The high percentage of ricinoleic acid residues in castor oil and its derivatives, inhibits many microbes, whether viral, bacterial or fungal.Castor oil is the major raw material for polyglycerol polyricinoleate, a modifier that improves the flow characteristics of cocoa butter in the manufacture of chocolate bars, and thereby reduces the costs .Castor seeds have been found in Egyptian tombs dating back to 4000 BC; the slow-burning oil was mostly used to fuel lamps.Herodotus and other Greek travellers noted the use of castor seed oil for lighting, body ointments, and improving hair growth and texture.The use of castor bean oil (eranda) in India has been documented since 2000 BC in lamps and in local medicine as a laxative, purgative, and cathartic in Unani, Ayurvedic, siddha and other ethnomedical systems. Modern medical research suggests the purgative action induced by castor oil helps clear intestines of parasites."The leaves are applied topically with vinegar for erysipelas, and fresh-gathered, they are used by themselves for diseases of the mamillæ [breasts] and de- fluxions; a decoction of them in wine, with polenta and saffron, is good for inflammations of various kinds.In Haiti it is called maskreti, where the plant is turned into a red oil that is then given to newborns as a purgative to cleanse the insides of their first stools.Castor seed and its oil have also been used in China for centuries, mainly prescribed in local medicine for internal use or use in dressings.Castor oil was used as an instrument of coercion by the paramilitary Blackshirts under the regime of Italian dictator Benito Mussolini and by the Spanish Civil Guard in Francoist Spain.Dissidents and regime opponents were forced to ingest the oil in large amounts, triggering severe diarrhea and dehydration, which could ultimately cause death.This punishment method was originally thought of by Gabriele D'Annunzio, the Italian poet and Fascist supporter, during the First World War. .
The Useful And Versatile Castor Bean Plant
A number of oilseed crops happen to be good plants for bees, including the castor bean (Ricinus communis).Reportedly native to Africa and possibly Asia, this species now occurs in most areas of the globe.This species has escaped locally in waste places in some states, including California, Utah, Arizona, Texas, Kansas, Missouri, Tennessee, Illinois, Ohio, Michigan, Pennsylvania, New York, Massachusetts, and New Hampshire.In addition, it can sometimes be found in parts of the South, the Southeast, and the Atlantic regions mostly from Louisiana northward to Virginia.In areas with short growing seasons, castor beans are six to eight feet in height, depending on the variety.In tropical regions, it is a woody evergreen shrub or tree ultimately growing 40 feet tall.The large, coarse looking plant features a sparsely branched, stout, smooth stem that is generally light brown to greenish with a whitish bloom.Roughly star shaped, the pungent smelling leaves develop very prominent greenish-yellow to white veins.Typically in colder climates, castor beans bear flowers from July through October, depending on the planting time.In Texas and other warm regions where this survives the Winter, flowering can begin as early as March or April.Lacking petals, the small flowers form dense, crowded clusters or panicles that can be one to two feet in length.The male blossoms emerge mostly towards the base of the flower cluster slightly earlier than the females.These feature a light green calyx and three to five lobes, numerous pale yellow anthers, and lots of crowded, much branched, fluffy, conspicuous creamy stamens.A South American study found that when the pollen comprises more than 10% of the bees’ diet that they tend to have shorter life spans.Some bee experts report it arises from extrafloral nectaries located at the base of the leaves.This is described as being liquid early in the morning and tending to harden as the day progresses, which is often the case with some sources of honeydew.Some gardeners grow this plant to repel moles although there is scant evidence that it is an effective deterrent.Take steps to ensure that children and pets won’t come into contact with the soaking seeds as these are poisonous.Suited to sandy and clay loams and most other soil types, these dislike constantly wet conditions.Originating in the Victorian Era, New Zealand Purple castor bean grows to eight feet in height.When Carmencita seeds first sprout, the seedlings are initially green, changing color as they mature.Typical symptoms upon consuming the raw seeds are diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal pain.Yet, there can be some variation in the severity of the symptoms, based on the individual’s response, the quantity consumed, and whether the seeds were ground or whole with the former being much more toxic.A number of animal species has experienced poisoning symptoms from castor beans, which usually isn’t fatal.Those affected have included poultry, goats, sheep, cattle, pigs, rabbits, horses, and household pets.This can be avoided by wearing long sleeves, pants, and rubber gloves when working around the plants.Despite that, the leaves have been fed to silkworms, which appear to be immune to the toxic substances the plant contains.These include lubricants, soaps, lamp oil, hair and leather dressings, candles, cosmetics, plastics, textiles, rubber, linoleum, paint, varnishes and other finishes, ink, coolants, oilcloth, ointments, waxes, and polishes.In some cases, the oil is used as a flavoring for certain foods, such as baked goods, candy, frozen desserts, and drinks.Connie Krochmal is a plant expert, author and beekeeper living in Louisville, Kentucky. .
Potencialmente, uma solução para esse problema seria executar a extração prensando somente o endosperma.No entanto, independentemente do tratamento térmico, a solicitação mecânica do grão na direção longitudinal é a mais indicada para promover a decorticação.It was observed that the heat treatments did not alter the mechanical properties of castor beans, the strain and stiffness values discriminate the differences between the directions and had the lowest coefficients of variation.Potencialmente, uma solução para esse problema seria executar a extração prensando somente o endosperma.No entanto, independentemente do tratamento térmico, a solicitação mecânica do grão na direção longitudinal é a mais indicada para promover a decorticação.Despite the increased attention that the culture of castor beans has received from researchers and the Brazilian government, the work hitherto published is not aimed at post-harvest and processing of grains and their interactions with the oil quality.The work of OLAOYE (2000) and, more recently, GONELI (2008), represent efforts in investigating properties of castor beans, but are not targeted at decortication.The rupture force and corresponding strain, deformation energy and stifness are important mechanical parameters and can provide support for a decortication strategy.The castor fruits used were produced at the Central North Pole of the Paulista Agency of Agribusiness Technology (APTA), located in the city of Pindorama - SP.The monitoring of water loss during drying was performed by weighing the tray, using an analytical scale with a resolution of 0.01g (model SL-3000, SCIENTECH®), at intervals of 15 minutes.Drying was stopped when the water content of the grains was calculated between 4 and 8 % (db), indicated by the final weight of the tray with the product.This estimate was performed through the initial moisture content of the fruit and considering only the water loss and constant dry mass.Additionally, farmyard drying was performed on concrete floor, conventionally employed by producers, and used as the control treatment.The initial grain size in the direction of the load application was measured with a digital caliper (model 727-2001, STARRETT®) with a resolution of 0.01 mm.For each test the force-deformation curve up to breakage of the bean coat was obtained, identified by a sudden reduction in compressive force.In order to analyze the values obtained in the compression tests at different drying treatments, a randomized blocks statistical design was used.The biological yielding was not observed, and for both directions rupture was similar to that of fragile materials such as sunflower seeds (GUPTA & DAS, 2000).Table 2 shows the average values of the maximum rupture force of the bean coat for each heat treatment obtained after compression tests for the two perpendicular directions.The variation of the average maximum force value showed no clear trend associated with different drying temperatures.GUPTA & DAS (2000) also observed higher values of maximum force in the length or vertical direction for sunflower beans.Table 3 shows the average values of deformation energy until rupture of the bean coat, length and widthwise, for the drying treatments.Similarly to the behavior of the average values of maximum force, the strain energy showed no trend associated to the increase of the drying air temperature.GONELI (2008) obtained values of castor bean coat deformation energy till rupture thicknesswise close to those found in this work, between 0.0256 and 0.0477 J for water contents between 8-66 %.Table 4 shows average values of rupture strain of the bean coat length and widthwise for the drying treatments.The average strain values obtained show the difference between width and lengthwise force application and are able discriminated anisotropic behavior for all treatments.The coefficients of variation are within an acceptable range for biological materials, except the too high a value of 37.29 % for the 60 ºC treatment, for reasons beyond our understanding.This difference of 1.4% in strain values between these drying treatments can be significant in grading material for decortication since dependency on the average sizes, may cause endosperm rupture.Similar values for strain and maximum rupture force were found by OLAOYE (2000) for castor beans 'Asbowu', 'Evahura' and 'Ojji', all of Nigerian origin.The values found by the author are relatively high, showing that efforts in the height or resting would not be suitable for proper decortication to obtain the whole endosperm.It is an important property in designing hulling machines, since estimations of force and strain variations to be imposed on the product are possible.Finally, as they were expected to, the average stiffness values behaved similarly to those of strain, showing the anisotropic behavior between the directions along the length and width, but not discriminating the drying treatments. .