A bean is the seed of one of several genera of the flowering plant family Fabaceae, which are used as vegetables for human or animal food.[1] They can be cooked in many different ways,[2] including boiling, frying, and baking, and are used in many traditional dishes throughout the world.Both terms, beans and pulses, are usually reserved for grain crops and thus exclude those legumes that have tiny seeds and are used exclusively for non-grain purposes (forage, hay, and silage), such as clover and alfalfa.The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization defines "BEANS, DRY" (item code 176)[5] as applicable only to species of Phaseolus.Unlike the closely related pea, beans are a summer crop that needs warm temperatures to grow.Native Americans customarily grew them along with corn and squash (the so-called Three Sisters),[7] with the tall cornstalks acting as support for the beans.[9] In a form improved from naturally occurring types, they were grown in Thailand from the early seventh millennium BCE, predating ceramics.Not until the second millennium BCE did cultivated, large-seeded broad beans appear in the Aegean, Iberia and transalpine Europe.[11] In the Iliad (8th century BCE) there is a passing mention of beans and chickpeas cast on the threshing floor.The oldest-known domesticated beans in the Americas were found in Guitarrero Cave, an archaeological site in Peru, and dated to around the second millennium BCE.[13] However, genetic analyses of the common bean Phaseolus show that it originated in Mesoamerica, and subsequently spread southward, along with maize and squash, traditional companion crops.Most of the kinds commonly eaten fresh or dried, those of the genus Phaseolus, come originally from the Americas, being first seen by a European when Christopher Columbus, while exploring what may have been the Bahamas, found them growing in fields.The corn would not be planted in rows as is done by European agriculture, but in a checkerboard/hex fashion across a field, in separate patches of one to six stalks each.They would be provided slight shelter from the sun by the corn, would shade the soil and reduce evaporation, and would deter many animals from attacking the corn and beans because their coarse, hairy vines and broad, stiff leaves are difficult or uncomfortable for animals such as deer and raccoons to walk through, crows to land on, etc.Beans are a heliotropic plant, meaning that the leaves tilt throughout the day to face the sun.Beans, average, canned, sugarfree Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz) Energy 334 kJ (80 kcal) Carbohydrates 10.5 g Fat 0.5 g Protein 9.6 g Units.Currently, the world gene banks hold about 40,000 bean varieties, although only a fraction are mass-produced for regular consumption.Most of the foods we call "beans", "legumes", "lentils" and "pulses" belong to the same family, Fabaceae ("leguminous" plants), but are from different genera and species, native to different homelands and distributed worldwide depending on their adaptability.Many types of bean[specify] contain significant amounts of antinutrients that inhibit some enzyme processes in the body.Phytic acid and phytates, present in grains, nuts, seeds and beans, interfere with bone growth and interrupt vitamin D metabolism.Some kinds of raw beans contain a harmful, tasteless toxin: the lectin phytohaemagglutinin, which must be removed by cooking.Red kidney beans are particularly toxic, but other types also pose risks of food poisoning.[34] Beans are a major source of dietary protein in Kenya, Malawi, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia.There have been many outbreaks of disease from bacterial contamination, often by salmonella, listeria, and Escherichia coli, of beansprouts not thoroughly cooked,[36] some causing significant mortality.(million metric tons) Country 2016 Share Remarks Total 81.80 100% 1 India 17.56 21.47% 2 Canada 8.20 10.03% 3 Myanmar 6.57 8.03% 4 China 4.23 5.17% 5 Nigeria 3.09 3.78% 6 Russia 2.94 3.60% 7 Ethiopia 2.73 3.34% 8 Brazil 2.62 3.21% 9 Australia 2.52 3.09% 10 USA 2.44 2.98% 11 Niger 2.06 2.51% 12 Tanzania 2.00 2.45% Others 24.82 30.34%.The world leader in production of Dry Beans (Phaseolus spp),[43] is Myanmar (Burma), followed by India and Brazil. .

History of Beans

Seeds grow in pods that are between 10 and 20 cm long and are at first soft and sweet only to get hard and dry as they mature.Beans were also found in the tombs of the kings of the ancient Egypt where they were left as the food for the departed and their souls in the afterlife.They have lectin phytohaemagglutinin which can cause poisoning with symptoms of nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea from as little as five raw beans.Bean also contains oligosaccharides (raffinose and stachyose) which are digested by bacteria in the large intestine which results in flatulence-causing gases.For instance, in China (more precisely in Sichuan), broad beans are mixed with soybeans and chili peppers and fermented into a paste called doubanjiang.In Dalmatia, a part of Croatia, people prepare a traditional dish made of stuffed artichokes with fava beans and peas.Greeks also cook stew of artichokes and fava beans but while they are still green and in their pods.The Southern United States eat a “Hoppin' John” - a dish made of black-eyed peas and rice.It is prepared by mixing mashed black-eyed peas, salt, onions and peppers and frying the mixture.East Asian adzuki bean is boiled with sugar and made into a sweet paste to be used as an ingredient for many desserts.Mung beans are cooked with coconut milk, sugar and a little ginger and made into a porridge which is a dessert snack called “es kacang hijau”.On the other hand, when the mung bean is made into a fine paste with ginger and salt it is eaten for breakfast. .

Baked beans

Originally, Native Americans sweetened baked beans with maple syrup, a tradition some recipes still follow, but some English colonists used brown sugar beginning in the 17th century.In the 18th century, the convention of using American-made molasses as a sweetening agent became increasingly popular to avoid British taxes on sugar.Today, baked beans are served throughout the United States alongside barbecue foods and at picnics.In the early 20th century, canned baked beans gained international popularity, particularly in the United Kingdom, where they have become a common part of an English full breakfast.[9][11] They substituted molasses or sugar for the maple syrup, bacon or ham for the bear fat, and simmered their beans for hours in pots over the fire instead of underground.[13] Nineteenth-century cookbooks published in New England, spread to other portions of the United States and Canada, which familiarized other people with the dish.While many recipes today are stewed, traditionally dried beans were soaked overnight, simmered until tender (parboiled), and then slow-baked in a ceramic or cast-iron beanpot.[14] In the 18th century the convention of using American made molasses as a sweetening agent became increasingly popular in order to avoid British taxes on sugar.[15] In the absence of a brick oven, the beans were cooked in a beanpot nestled in a bed of embers placed near the outer edges of a hearth, about a foot away from the fire.A tradition in Maine of "bean hole" cooking may have originated with the native Penobscot people and was later practiced in logging camps.A fire would be made in a stone-lined pit and allowed to burn down to hot coals, and then a pot with 11[16] pounds of seasoned beans would be placed in the ashes, covered over with dirt, and left to cook overnight or longer.Canned beans, often containing pork, were among the first convenience foods, and were exported and popularised by U.S. companies internationally in the early 20th century.[6] Heinz was also the first company to sell baked beans outside of the United States, beginning with sales limited solely to Fortnum & Mason in 1886, when the item was considered a luxury.Originally, Heinz baked beans were prepared in the traditional United States manner for sales in Ireland and Great Britain.Over time, the recipe was altered to a less sweet tomato sauce without maple syrup, molasses, or brown sugar to appeal to the tastes of the United Kingdom.Baked beans are commonly eaten on toast or as part of a full English, Scottish, or Irish breakfast.In 2002, the British Dietetic Association allowed manufacturers of canned baked beans to advertise the product as contributing to the recommended daily consumption of five to six vegetables per person.This concession was criticised by heart specialists, who pointed to the high levels of sugar and salt in the product.Baked beans are known on occasion to cause an increase in flatulence following consumption;[29][30] this is due to the fermentation of polysaccharides (specifically oligosaccharides) by gut bacteria. .

History of Dried Beans – How It All Started

Beans have been a part of human’s diets for thousands of years, and they come in hundreds of sizes, shapes, and colors.To bring them back to life, you only need to soak them in water for a couple of hours to activate their proteins, vitamins, minerals, and enzymes.They can also be curdled into tofu, ground into flour, and fermented into miso, tempi, and soy sauce.These native farming practices and beans spread gradually all over North and South America.After generations of cultivation and selection, each tribe had its own locally-adapted bean for trade, seed, food, and gifts.Tepary beans – cultivated about 5,000 years ago in northwestern Mexico (the Sonoran Desert) and the southwestern United States.For thousands of years, the common bean has migrated across the world – from the American continent to Europe, and then back again with European immigrants and explorers.Furthermore, when European explorers arrived in the New World, natives introduced them to Three Sisters – a companion planting technique.This technique involves growing beans, squash, and corn together – after decades of experimentation, the natives noticed that they were productive when planted together.Up to this point, Europeans were only familiar with fava beans, and when they set their sails back to Europe, they took along seeds from the crops the indigenous people had introduced to them.After taking bean cultivars to Europe, European settlers renamed them and returned to North America.As for Bolita beans, it is not clear whether the Spaniards only picked them up while traveling north through Mexico or brought them from Spain.Immigrants who brought seeds from Europe used to grow them and select plants that adapted to the local climate.Beans are also versatile because they pair well with different meats, like lamb and chicken, can be mashed or kept intact, and go well with salads and soups.Dried beans are also easy and convenient to prepare, and they can be combined with different types of meat and vegetables.In other words, it decreases the risk of these costly problems that can negatively affect your bottom line (unprofitable equipment downtime, expensive maintenance interventions, and broken and wasted materials). .

History of Chocolate

According to Hayes Lavis, cultural arts curator for the Smithsonian’s National Museum of the American Indian, ancient Olmec pots and vessels from around 1500 B.C.The Olmecs undoubtedly passed their cacao knowledge on to the Central American Mayans who not only consumed chocolate, they revered it.The Mayan written history mentions chocolate drinks being used in celebrations and to finalize important transactions.Despite chocolate’s importance in Mayan culture, it wasn’t reserved for the wealthy and powerful but readily available to almost everyone.Mayan chocolate was thick and frothy and often combined with chili peppers, honey or water.Like the Mayans, they enjoyed the caffeinated kick of hot or cold, spiced chocolate beverages in ornate containers, but they also used cacao beans as currency to buy food and other goods.Another tale states Spanish conquistador Hernan Cortes was introduced to chocolate by the Aztecs of Montezuma’s court.A third story claims that friars who presented Guatemalan Mayans to Philip II of Spain in 1544 also brought cacao beans along as a gift.European palates weren’t satisfied with the traditional Aztec chocolate drink recipe.They made their own varieties of hot chocolate with cane sugar, cinnamon and other common spices and flavorings.Soon, fashionable chocolate houses for the wealthy cropped up throughout London, Amsterdam and other European cities.By 1773, cocoa beans were a major American colony import and chocolate was enjoyed by people of all classes.During the Revolutionary War, chocolate was provided to the military as rations and sometimes given to soldiers as payment instead of money.But in 1828, Dutch chemist Coenraad Johannes van Houten discovered a way to treat cacao beans with alkaline salts to make a powdered chocolate that was easier to mix with water.In 1879, another Swiss chocolatier, Rudolf Lindt, invented the conch machine which mixed and aerated chocolate giving it a smooth, melt-in-your-mouth consistency that blended well with other ingredients.As many cocoa farmers struggle to make ends meet, some turn to low-wage or slave labor (sometimes acquired by child trafficking) to stay competitive.This has prompted grass roots efforts for large chocolate companies to reconsider how they get their cocoa supply. .

The History of Coffee

The story goes that that Kaldi discovered coffee after he noticed that after eating the berries from a certain tree, his goats became so energetic that they did not want to sleep at night.Kaldi reported his findings to the abbot of the local monastery, who made a drink with the berries and found that it kept him alert through the long hours of evening prayer.As word moved east and coffee reached the Arabian peninsula, it began a journey which would bring these beans across the globe.Not only did the patrons drink coffee and engage in conversation, but they also listened to music, watched performers, played chess and kept current on the news.With thousands of pilgrims visiting the holy city of Mecca each year from all over the world, knowledge of this “wine of Araby” began to spread.Some people reacted to this new beverage with suspicion or fear, calling it the “bitter invention of Satan.” The local clergy condemned coffee when it came to Venice in 1615.Despite such controversy, coffee houses were quickly becoming centers of social activity and communication in the major cities of England, Austria, France, Germany and Holland.Those who drank coffee instead of alcohol began the day alert and energized, and not surprisingly, the quality of their work was greatly improved.In 1714, the Mayor of Amsterdam presented a gift of a young coffee plant to King Louis XIV of France.Despite a challenging voyage — complete with horrendous weather, a saboteur who tried to destroy the seedling, and a pirate attack — he managed to transport it safely to Martinique.Once planted, the seedling not only thrived, but it’s credited with the spread of over 18 million coffee trees on the island of Martinique in the next 50 years. .

Accidental inventions: The barf flavored jelly bean inventor

Lee is head of a three-man R&D team that has introduced an array of novel and unexpected tastes for the jelly bean including beer and cocktail versions and even stinky socks flavor.The Jelly Belly R&D team experimented with the hops and other materials to make beer, but the product was slightly too bitter.The R&D chief went on to develop other risqué flavors for Harry Potter including earth worm, rotten egg, ear wax and sardines.Lee worked on other stomach-turning flavors for the BeanBoozled range such as stinky socks, centipede and baby wipes.Lee said his all-time favorite Jelly Belly flavor was buttered popcorn, which he developed around 25 years ago when the microwave was rising in popularity.Upper management expressed similar sentiments – but then Lee passed by the office of the CEO and asked his boss to guess the flavor.“He said ‘congratulations Ambrose, you have developed the first candy with a sweet and savory base!’” ​Buttered popcorn remains one of Jelly Belly’s top 10 flavors.Lee joined Jelly Belly in 1981 as a quality control technician when the firm was still the Herman Goelitz Candy Company.“Ronald Reagan tasted our candy and afterwards we couldn’t fill the orders, so that’s why we moved to a bigger facility,”​ said Lee.After the development phase, finished products are sent to a focus group of around 50 people and if they like the taste, the brand will be presented at a trade fair.Lee said that Jelly Belly’s R&D department was currently focused on non-GMO ingredients and was staying away from the Southhampton colors that had be linked in a study to child hyperactivity. .

History of Jelly Beans: What Are They, and What Are They Made of?

What comes in a nearly endless supply of flavors and colors, contains about 4 calories, has two days named after it, and has been an important part of Easter baskets, holiday gifts and other events for decades?While its chewy texture was an inspiration for jelly beans’ filling, their shells actually derived from Jordan almonds, which are sugar coated by shaking in a container of syrup: a process invented in France in the 1600s.Today they’re popular year-round, thanks to famous devotees like the Beatles and President Ronald Reagan…not to mention the bizarre flavors inspired by the Harry Potter movies of the 2000s.These were discovered by Reagan the following year, and by 1973, according to a letter he wrote the company, “We can hardly start a meeting or make a decision without passing the jar of jelly beans.”.The Herman Goelitz Candy Company relocated to Fairfield, California, in 1986 and began offering public tours shortly thereafter.Inspired by the Harry Potter series of books and movies, Goelitz introduced Bertie Bott’s Every Flavour Beans®, in freaky flavors like Dirt, Bacon and Spinach.While the Jelly Belly Express in Pleasant Prairie takes fans on an exploratory indoor train ride, the company’s BeanBoozled game offers a totally different experience with ten lookalike pairs of wildly contrasting flavors. .

Where do your beans come from?

The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) originated as a wild vine in Central and South America.Thanks to generations of Indigenous food growers cultivating beans over many millennia, there are thousands of varieties within the P. vulgaris species grown around the world today.This diversity didn’t happen by accident; farmers selected the plants they liked the best and saved seeds from them, nudging beans toward heat tolerance, redness, frost resistance and more.RELATED: Learn how farmers in Timor-Leste are using trees in the legume family to regenerate the health of degraded soil.He has long advocated for Canadians to grow and eat more pulses (beans, peas, chickpeas, favas and lentils).The following two recipes, one for fresh beans and one for dried, were provided with kind permission by Dan.Whether you enjoy them on their own, with creamy polenta or piled on toast beneath a runny egg, baked beans are nourishing and comforting.2 ½ cups (600 mL) dry navy beans, soaked in water overnight.Lifting the lid and stirring occasionally, cook the beans for six to seven hours, until they are tender and the liquid has reduced to a thick glaze.To cook in a slow cooker, boil beans in a medium pot for 10 to 12 minutes.Whether you toss one in a Caesar or pile a few on a cheese board, there’s nothing like the vinegary snap of a pickled bean.Add green beans to boiling water and cook until al dente, about two minutes.In a small saucepan, bring water, vinegar, sugar, salt, mustard seeds, red pepper flakes and garlic to a boil.Stand blanched beans in mason jars and add dill sprigs.Fill jars with cooled pickling liquid and allow to infuse for a minimum of six hours before eating: the flavour will become stronger over time.For additional flavour add chopped roasted nuts, seeds, Parmesan or feta cheese.

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