oleracea), and belongs to the "cole crops" or brassicas, meaning it is closely related to broccoli and cauliflower (var.Under conditions of long sunny days, such as those found at high northern latitudes in summer, cabbages can grow quite large.They can be prepared many different ways for eating; they can be pickled, fermented (for dishes such as sauerkraut), steamed, stewed, sautéed, braised, or eaten raw.[5] A related species, Brassica rapa, is commonly named Chinese, napa or celery cabbage, and has many of the same uses.The original family name of brassicas was Cruciferae, which derived from the flower petal pattern thought by medieval Europeans to resemble a crucifix.[5] Many European and Asiatic names for cabbage are derived from the Celto-Slavic root cap or kap, meaning "head".The cabbage inflorescence , which appears in the plant's second year of growth, features white or yellow flowers, each with four perpendicularly arranged petals.The inflorescence is an unbranched and indeterminate terminal raceme measuring 50–100 cm (20–40 in) tall,[13] with flowers that are yellow or white.Each flower has four petals set in a perpendicular pattern, as well as four sepals, six stamens, and a superior ovary that is two-celled and contains a single stigma and style.The fruit is a silique that opens at maturity through dehiscence to reveal brown or black seeds that are small and round in shape.Leaf types are generally divided between crinkled-leaf, loose-head savoys and smooth-leaf firm-head cabbages, while the color spectrum includes white and a range of greens and purples.Cabbage has been selectively bred for head weight and morphological characteristics, frost hardiness, fast growth and storage ability.The appearance of the cabbage head has been given importance in selective breeding, with varieties being chosen for shape, color, firmness and other physical characteristics.[16] Breeding objectives are now focused on increasing resistance to various insects and diseases and improving the nutritional content of cabbage.Although cabbage has an extensive history,[23] it is difficult to trace its exact origins owing to the many varieties of leafy greens classified as "brassicas".[24] A possible wild ancestor of cabbage, Brassica oleracea, originally found in Britain and continental Europe, is tolerant of salt but not encroachment by other plants and consequently inhabits rocky cliffs in cool damp coastal habitats,[25] retaining water and nutrients in its slightly thickened, turgid leaves.However, genetic analysis is consistent with feral origin of this population, deriving from plants escaped from field and gardens.Because of the wide range of crops developed from the wild B. oleracea, multiple broadly contemporaneous domestications of cabbage may have occurred throughout Europe.Nonheading cabbages and kale were probably the first to be domesticated, before 1000 BC,[28] perhaps by the Celts of central and western Europe,[5] although recent linguistic and genetic evidence enforces a Mediterranean origin of cultivated brassicas.While unidentified brassicas were part of the highly conservative unchanging Mesopotamian garden repertory,[30] it is believed that the ancient Egyptians did not cultivate cabbage,[31] which is not native to the Nile valley, though the word shaw't in Papyrus Harris of the time of Ramesses III has been interpreted as "cabbage".[33] Ptolemaic Egyptians knew the cole crops as gramb, under the influence of Greek krambe, which had been a familiar plant to the Macedonian antecedents of the Ptolemies.[32] By early Roman times, Egyptian artisans and children were eating cabbage and turnips among a wide variety of other vegetables and pulses.[38] The more traditionalist Cato the Elder, espousing a simple Republican life, ate his cabbage cooked or raw and dressed with vinegar; he said it surpassed all other vegetables, and approvingly distinguished three varieties; he also gave directions for its medicinal use, which extended to the cabbage-eater's urine, in which infants might be rinsed.According to Pliny, the Pompeii cabbage, which could not stand cold, is "taller, and has a thick stock near the root, but grows thicker between the leaves, these being scantier and narrower, but their tenderness is a valuable quality".The Greeks and Romans claimed medicinal usages for their cabbage varieties that included relief from gout, headaches and the symptoms of poisonous mushroom ingestion.At the end of Antiquity cabbage is mentioned in De observatione ciborum ("On the Observance of Foods") by Anthimus, a Greek doctor at the court of Theodoric the Great.Cabbage appears among vegetables directed to be cultivated in the Capitulare de villis, composed in 771–800 AD, that guided the governance of the royal estates of Charlemagne.[46] French naturalist Jean Ruel made what is considered the first explicit mention of head cabbage in his 1536 botanical treatise De Natura Stirpium, referring to it as capucos coles ("head-coles").[48] In India, cabbage was one of several vegetable crops introduced by colonizing traders from Portugal, who established trade routes from the 14th to 17th centuries.[51] Sauerkraut was used by Dutch, Scandinavian and German sailors to prevent scurvy during long ship voyages.Jacques Cartier first brought cabbage to the Americas in 1541–42, and it was probably planted by the early English colonists, despite the lack of written evidence of its existence there until the mid-17th century.Cabbage is generally grown for its densely leaved heads, produced during the first year of its biennial cycle.Plants are generally started in protected locations early in the growing season before being transplanted outside, although some are seeded directly into the ground from which they will be harvested.[14] Seedlings typically emerge in about 4–6 days from seeds planted 13 mm (1⁄2 in) deep at a soil temperature between 20 and 30 °C (68 and 86 °F).[14] Closer spacing reduces the resources available to each plant (especially the amount of light) and increases the time taken to reach maturity.When being grown for seed, cabbages must be isolated from other B. oleracea subspecies, including the wild varieties, by 0.8 to 1.6 km (1⁄2 to 1 mi) to prevent cross-pollination.Fungal diseases include wirestem, which causes weak or dying transplants; Fusarium yellows, which result in stunted and twisted plants with yellow leaves; and blackleg (see Leptosphaeria maculans), which leads to sunken areas on stems and gray-brown spotted leaves.[64] The fungi Alternaria brassicae and A.

brassicicola cause dark leaf spots in affected plants.They are both seedborne and airborne, and typically propagate from spores in infected plant debris left on the soil surface for up to twelve weeks after harvest.Rhizoctonia solani causes the post-emergence disease wirestem, resulting in killed seedlings ("damping-off"), root rot or stunted growth and smaller heads.Clubroot, caused by the soilborne slime mold-like organism Plasmodiophora brassicae, results in swollen, club-like roots.[66] The cabbage looper (Trichoplusia ni) is infamous in North America for its voracious appetite and for producing frass that contaminates plants.Factors that contribute to reduced head weight include: growth in the compacted soils that result from no-till farming practices, drought, waterlogging, insect and disease incidence, and shading and nutrient stress caused by weeds.Vacuum cooling rapidly refrigerates the vegetable, allowing for earlier shipping and a fresher product.The simplest options include eating the vegetable raw or steaming it, though many cuisines pickle, stew, sautée or braise cabbage.It is frequently eaten, either cooked or as sauerkraut, as a side dish or as an ingredient in such dishes as bigos (cabbage, sauerkraut, meat, and wild mushrooms, among other ingredients) gołąbki (stuffed cabbage) and pierogi (filled dumplings).Other eastern European countries, such as Hungary and Romania, also have traditional dishes that feature cabbage as a main ingredient.[80] Cabbage is also a moderate source (10–19% DV) of vitamin B6 and folate, with no other nutrients having significant content per 100-gram serving (table).The Ancient Greeks recommended consuming the vegetable as a laxative,[47] and used cabbage juice as an antidote for mushroom poisoning,[84] for eye salves, and for liniments for bruises.[86] Ancient Egyptians ate cooked cabbage at the beginning of meals to reduce the intoxicating effects of wine.The cooling properties of the leaves were used in Britain as a treatment for trench foot in World War I, and as compresses for ulcers and breast abscesses.The latter toxin has been traced to pre-made, packaged coleslaw mixes, while the spores were found on whole cabbages that were otherwise acceptable in appearance.Biological risk assessments have concluded that there is the potential for further outbreaks linked to uncooked cabbage, due to contamination at many stages of the growing, harvesting and packaging processes.Contaminants from water, humans, animals and soil have the potential to be transferred to cabbage, and from there to the end consumer.Cabbage and other cruciferous vegetables contain small amounts of thiocyanate, a compound associated with goiter formation when iodine intake is deficient. .

Fruit and Vegetable Gardening A-Z: Cabbage

Brassica oleracea, the type of cabbage that is traditionally used in cole slaw and sauerkraut.Cabbage prefers full sun but can tolerate partial shade.Be aware that cabbage is prone to attack by white butterflies and their offspring, cabbageworms (green caterpillars).Directly sow seeds in early spring when all danger of frost has passed or start seeds indoors in February or March.Cabbage prefers full sun but can tolerate partial shade.Avoid planting any crop in the cabbage family in the same spot each year.Thin seedlings to 15-18 inches apart, in rows 32-36 inches apart.Cabbage requires continuous watering, but avoid water logging its roots.Be aware that cabbage is prone to attack by white butterflies and their offspring, cabbageworms (green caterpillars).Ward off an attack naturally by planting Sweet Alyssum around the crop.The heads are usually ready for harvest after 90-95 days. .

9 Impressive Health Benefits of Cabbage

This vegetable has been grown around the world for thousands of years and can be found in a variety of dishes, including sauerkraut, kimchi and coleslaw. .

Cabbage: Health benefits, facts, research

It provides a nutritional breakdown of cabbage and an in-depth look at its possible health benefits, how to incorporate more cabbage into your diet and any potential health risks of consuming this vegetable.The cabbage may help protect against radiation, prevent cancer , and reduce heart disease risk.A compound found in cabbage and other cruciferous vegetables known as 3,3′-diindolylmethane (DIM) has been shown to increase short-term survival rates in some animal studies on radiation.Another potential cancer-fighting compound found in cabbage is sulforaphane.Research over the past 30 years has consistently shown that consuming cruciferous vegetables is associated with a lower risk of cancer.More recently, researchers have been able to pinpoint that the sulfur-containing compound that gives cruciferous vegetables their bitter taste — sulforaphane — is also what appears to give them their cancer-fighting power.The ability to stop HDAC enzymes could make sulforaphane-containing foods a potentially powerful part of cancer treatment.Red cabbage contains the powerful antioxidant anthocyanin, the same compound that gives other red and purple fruits and vegetables their vibrant colors.Recent studies have shown that dietary fiber may even play a role in regulating the immune system and inflammation, consequently decreasing the risk of inflammation-related conditions such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, and obesity. .

Fruits and Vegetables Dogs Can or Can't Eat – American Kennel Club

After all, if it is safe for you to eat, it must be OK for your dog to eat, right?As omnivores, dogs have no real need for fruits or vegetables as part of their diet, but an occasional fruit or veggie as a treat is OK. Read on to find out which fruits and vegetables are OK for sharing in moderation and which should be avoided.Fruits Dogs Can and Can’t Eat.No, dogs should not eat avocado.In moderation, bananas are a great low-calorie treat for dogs.Yes, dogs can eat blueberries.Cantaloupe is packed with nutrients, low in calories, and a great source of water and fiber.It is, however, high in sugar, so should be shared in moderation, especially for dogs who are overweight or have diabetes.No, dogs should not eat cherries.Yes, cranberries are safe for dogs to eat.No, dogs should never eat grapes.Mango is high in sugar, so use it as an occasional treat.Yes, dogs can eat oranges.Oranges are an excellent source of vitamin C, potassium, and fiber, and in small quantities, the juicy flesh of an orange can be a tasty treat for your dog.Yes, peaches are safe for dogs to eat.Small amounts of cut-up fresh or frozen peaches are a great source of fiber and vitamin A, and can even help fight infections, but just like cherries, the pit contains cyanide.Pears are a great snack because they’re high in copper, vitamins C and K, and fiber.Yes, pineapple is safe for dogs to eat.Yes, dogs can eat raspberries.No, dogs should not eat asparagus.Yes, broccoli is safe for dogs to eat in very small quantities and is best served as an occasional treat.It is high in fiber and vitamin C and low in fat.Carrots are an excellent low-calorie snack that is high in fiber and beta-carotene, which produces vitamin A.Yes, celery is safe for dogs to eat.Yes, dogs can eat green beans.No, dogs should never eat onions.Peas have several vitamins, minerals, and are rich in protein and high in fiber.You can feed your dog fresh or frozen peas, but avoid canned peas with added sodium.While your dog would probably have to eat a very large amount of spinach to have this problem, it might be best to go with another vegetable. .

Bay Area Seasonal Fruit & Vegetable Guide

Citrus (grapefruit, kumquats, lemons, mandarins).Asparagus.Cabbage.Cauliflower.Kale.Find seasonal fruits and vegetables at a local farmers market near you.10 reasons to support farmers markets - CUESA. .

Cabbage soup diet: Everything to know about the low-calorie diet plan

As the cabbage soup diet plan is an extreme diet that is incredibly restrictive, you shouldn’t stay on it for more than one week.Like the 5:2 plan and other intermittent fasting diets, this restrictive diet plan is a good way to lose weight quickly but is not sustainable in the long-term.What is the cabbage soup diet?The cabbage soup diet is an extremely low-fat, high-fibre diet that lasts seven days.Many recipes include green peppers, onions, mushrooms and other vegetables,” she tells us.This is not a diet I would recommend anyone to follow,” she adds.Whilst weight loss can be expected (and seen as a pro of this diet), it’s worth noting that those who follow the cabbage soup diet will put the weight back on when they come off it.“However it’s crucial to bear in mind that this diet is not a sustainable way to lose weight in the long run, and will likely result in you regaining the weight you lose once you stop restricting your intake of normal foods.”.“I made a fresh batch of the cabbage soup every two or three days and followed the other bits of the plan, like eating lots of fruit and veg.Cabbage soup diet 7-day meal plan.Day 1: You can eat as much fruit as you want (except bananas) along with unlimited cabbage soup, water and unsweetened tea and coffee.Day 2: Avoid fruit but eat raw veg and cabbage soup.Day 3: As much cabbage soup, fruit and vegetables as you like (excluding potatoes and bananas).Day 4: Unlimited cabbage soup.Cabbage soup diet recipe.To make cabbage soup you will need:.How to make cabbage soup:. .

vegetable

These plant parts are either eaten fresh or prepared in a number of ways, usually as a savory, rather than sweet, dish.The root vegetables include beets, carrots, radishes, sweet potatoes, and turnips.The leaf and leafstalk vegetables include brussels sprouts, cabbage, celery, lettuce, rhubarb, and spinach.The fruits commonly considered vegetables by virtue of their use include cucumbers, eggplant, okra, sweet corn, squash, peppers, and tomatoes.Modern vegetable farming ranges from small-scale production for local sale to vast commercial operations utilizing the latest advances in automation and technology.During the growing season synthetic or organic herbicides, pesticides, and fungicides are commonly used to inhibit damage by weeds, insects, and diseases, respectively.Vegetables may be washed, sorted, graded, cut, and packaged for sale as fresh products.Fresh vegetables are subject to quick aging and spoilage, but their storage life can be extended by such preservation processes as dehydration, canning, freezing, fermenting, or pickling. .

9 Foods That Are Natural Diuretics — Bloat-Reducing Fruits and

For relief for my swollen feet, I turned to a bit of Old World magic I'd learned from my grandmother and sent my husband out for a head of cabbage.Diuretics help your body get rid of salt and water mainly by stimulating your kidneys to release sodium into your urine.While generally safe for occasional use, they can have side effects like hypokalemia, caused by too little potassium, which can lead to heart problems.Happily, natural diuretics — like my cabbage — can offer relief from water retention and bloating without taking any pills at all."In general, veggies and fruit are high in water and potassium (and some are higher in magnesium and calcium), which can help to offset the constriction of your blood vessels that make you feel bloated when you’ve had excess sodium," explains Jaclyn London, MS, RD, CDN, Nutrition Director at the Good Housekeeping Institute."Choosing foods like grapes, celery, watermelon, other types of melon, cherries, apples, grapefruit, oranges and lots of leafy greens is automatically your best bet for feeling better, faster.The vegetable’s diuretic effects come from the amino acid asparagine and has been used to treat swelling, rheumatism, and premenstrual water retention.Remember: If your feet are always swollen or you're regularly retaining water, a visit to your doctor is a good idea to check for an underlying medical condition.Native Americans identified the diuretic effects of cranberries, using them to treat a number of conditions including scurvy, which they believed was caused by too much salt.Cranberry juice has been used by women worldwide to prevent and treat UTIs and other bladder disorders, although research results have been mixed.Loaded with water and potassium and low in sodium, cucumbers also inhibit the production of nitric acid and inflammatory enzymes, thus reducing swelling.It contains the amino acid citrulline, which relaxes blood vessels and keeps fluids from leaking into nearby tissue, thus reducing the retention of water.This content is created and maintained by a third party, and imported onto this page to help users provide their email addresses. .

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