Meanwhile, green cabbage is higher in most nutrients — except vitamin A.It also contains more fiber, a nutrient essential to digestive health ( 3 ).Two of the most common varieties are green cabbage and iceberg lettuce.They may look similar, but green cabbage is higher in fiber and most vitamins and minerals than iceberg lettuce.Eating any type of vegetable, including cabbage or lettuce, can benefit your health.However, cabbage contains significantly more vitamins and minerals than iceberg lettuce, including vitamins C and K, folate, and potassium ( 1 , 2 ).While iceberg lettuce contains antioxidants, cabbage and other lettuce varieties like red lettuces contain much higher amounts ( 10 ).Summary Both cabbage and lettuce contain fiber, vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants.Cabbage, including green and red cabbage, is typically higher in vitamins, minerals, and beneficial plant compounds than iceberg lettuce.If you want the texture of lettuce but are looking for a more nutritious option than iceberg, choose a variety of lettuce that contains higher levels of nutrients, such as red leaf or romaine lettuce ( 14 , 15 ).Summary Whether you choose cabbage or lettuce depends on how you plan to use it, as well as your nutritional and flavor preferences.There are many different varieties of cabbage and lettuce, each with its own nutrient profile.The two also have significantly different flavors, textures, and culinary uses. .

Lettuce vs Cabbage

These cultivars can differ by looks, taste and nutritional values.In this article we are using the nutritional values for Romaine lettuce and green cabbage.Due to the higher density of macronutrients, cabbage contains more calories.Lettuce only contains 0.05g more of it per 100g.The predominant fat type in lettuce are the preferable polyunsaturated fatty acids, when cabbage contains more saturated fatty acids.Lettuce is an amazing source of vitamin A, containing over 50 times more of it than cabbages.One hundred grams of Romaine lettuce contains more than enough of the daily value of both vitamins A and K.The acidity of both lettuce and cabbage can vary depending on environmental conditions and changes among cultivars.The pH values of different lettuce varieties usually fall between 5.9 to 6.2.Even though these vegetables are slightly acidic, they are not acid forming.Like most vegetables, lettuce and cabbage are also low calorie foods, rich in dietary fiber.Cabbage has more calories than lettuce, but it also has more than twice the amount of dietary fiber.Increased vegetable consumption prevents long-term weight gain and provides further food-specific guidance for the prevention of obesity, a primary risk factor for type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, cancers, and many other health conditions (3).The cabbage soup diet is a 7 day low calorie, high fiber diet.Overall soup consumption has been associated with a lower dietary energy density and a better diet quality in adults (6).High intake of vegetables have been consistently associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease.Particularly, cruciferous vegetables, such as cabbages, have been studied to promote cardiovascular health and overall longevity (8).Red varieties of both lettuce and cabbages tend to have the highest amounts of antioxidant polyphenols (11).Cabbage and lettuce are both low calorie vegetables with similar appearance but are unrelated to each other.Lettuce, on the other hand, is richer in protein and fats.However cabbage is much richer in vitamin C, also containing larger amounts of vitamin B5, vitamin B6, folate and calcium.Cabbage and lettuce possess beneficial qualities on cardiovascular health, diabetes, obesity and oncological diseases.Both cabbage and lettuce are full of fiber, vitamins, minerals and are overall great for health. .

Difference Between Cabbage and Lettuce

Cabbage vs lettuce.Cabbage has a short stem and a head, which has leaves gathered into a large bulb-like shape.Generally the inner leaves are preferred as food, rather than the outer leaves.Just like cabbage, lettuce has a short stem and leaves grown in it.Moreover, the stems come up with many flower heads.Cabbage has a short stem and a head, which has leaves gathered into a large bulb-like shape.Moreover, the stems come up with many flower heads. .

Cabbage vs Lettuce: What Is the Difference?

However, when it comes to nutrition, taste, appearance, and how to grow it, lettuce and cabbage are actually extremely different.Cabbage also has over twice of the dietary fiber that lettuce has, which makes it a good substitute in a salad.In terms of vitamins and protein, cabbage is healthier than lettuce, since lettuce does not have much nutritional content.Cabbage and lettuce are both green vegetables that have many layers of leaves.It is for this reason that most people eat the inner leaves and throw out the outside leaves.Lettuce, too, has a short stem, but the leaves wrap around one another, making lettuce look like one long stem.Lettuce, like cabbage, also needs to be kept generally moist, because its leaves will begin to wilt if it is not kept watered.They are grown in different conditions and acidities, taste different, prepared different, and can even be different colors. .


In addition to its main use as a leafy green, it has also gathered religious and medicinal significance over centuries of human consumption.Generally grown as a hardy annual, lettuce is easily cultivated, although it requires relatively low temperatures to prevent it from flowering quickly.It can be plagued by numerous nutrient deficiencies, as well as insect and mammal pests, and fungal and bacterial diseases.Although this trait can be a problem to home gardeners who attempt to save seeds, biologists have used it to broaden the gene pool of cultivated lettuce varieties.Contaminated lettuce is often a source of bacterial, viral, and parasitic outbreaks in humans, including E. coli and Salmonella.[8] Lettuce is closely related to several Lactuca species from southwest Asia; the closest relationship is to L. serriola, an aggressive weed common in temperate and subtropical zones in much of the world.The Romans referred to lettuce as lactuca (lac meaning "dairy" in Latin), an allusion to the white substance, latex, exuded by cut stems.[11] The current word lettuce, originally from Middle English, came from the Old French letues or laitues, which derived from the Roman name.Lettuces have a wide range of shapes and textures, from the dense heads of the iceberg type to the notched, scalloped, frilly or ruffly leaves of leaf varieties.Some varieties, especially those found in the United States and Western Europe, have long, narrow taproots and a small set of secondary roots.Depending on the variety and time of year, lettuce generally lives 65–130 days from planting to harvesting.Because lettuce that flowers (through the process known as "bolting") becomes bitter and unsaleable, plants grown for consumption are rarely allowed to grow to maturity.Once plants move past the edible stage, they develop flower stalks up to 1 m (3 ft 3 in) high with small yellow blossoms.[18] Like other members of the tribe Cichorieae, lettuce inflorescences (also known as flower heads or capitula) are composed of multiple florets, each with a modified calyx called a pappus (which becomes the feathery "parachute" of the fruit), a corolla of five petals fused into a ligule or strap, and the reproductive parts.[16][19] The ovaries form compressed, obovate (teardrop-shaped) dry fruits that do not open at maturity, measuring 3 to 4 mm long.Each fruit contains one seed, which can be white, yellow, gray or brown depending on the variety of lettuce.[20] Scientific research into the genetic modification of lettuce is ongoing, with over 85 field trials taking place between 1992 and 2005 in the European Union and the United States to test modifications allowing greater herbicide tolerance, greater resistance to insects and fungi and slower bolting patterns.[10] Lettuce was considered a sacred plant of the reproduction god Min, and was carried during his festivals and placed near his images.The cultivated variety appears to have been about 75 cm (30 in) tall and resembled a large version of the modern romaine lettuce.Due to its short lifespan after harvest, lettuce was originally sold relatively close to where it was grown.The early 20th century saw the development of new packing, storage and shipping technologies that improved the lifespan and transportability of lettuce and resulted in a significant increase in availability.[26] Lettuces meant for the cutting of individual leaves are generally planted straight into the garden in thick rows.Heading varieties of lettuces are commonly started in flats, then transplanted to individual spots, usually 20 to 36 cm (7.9 to 14.2 in) apart, in the garden after developing several leaves.Lettuce spaced farther apart receives more sunlight, which improves color and nutrient quantities in the leaves.[31] Plants in hot areas that are provided partial shade during the hottest part of the day will bolt more slowly.Lettuce quickly degrades when stored with fruit such as apples, pears and bananas that release the ripening agent ethylene gas.[18] This propensity for crossing, however, has led to breeding programs using closely related species in Lactuca, such as L. serriola, L. saligna, and L. virosa, to broaden the available gene pool.Summercrisp – Also called Batavian or French crisp, this lettuce is midway between the crisphead and leaf types.Celtuce/Stem – This type is grown for its seedstalk, rather than its leaves, and is used in Asian cooking, primarily Chinese, as well as stewed and creamed dishes.[41] Lettuce contains several defensive compounds, including sesquiterpene lactones, and other natural phenolics such as flavonol and glycosides, which help to protect it against pests.[18] Weeds can also be an issue, as cultivated lettuce is generally not competitive with them, especially when directly seeded into the ground.By the end of the century, other types began to regain popularity and eventually made up over 30 percent of production.In the early 21st century, bagged salad products increased in the lettuce market, especially in the US where innovative packaging and shipping methods prolonged freshness.Post-Roman Europe continued the tradition of poaching lettuce, mainly with large romaine types, as well as the method of pouring a hot oil and vinegar mixture over the leaves.Lettuce leaves can also be found in soups, sandwiches and wraps, while the stems are eaten both raw and cooked.The consumption of lettuce in China developed differently from in Western countries, due to health risks and cultural aversion to eating raw leaves; Chinese "salads" are composed of cooked vegetables and are served hot or cold.Stem lettuce, widely consumed in China, is eaten either raw or cooked, the latter primarily in soups and stir-frys.[32] With the exception of the iceberg variety, lettuce is also a good source (10–19% DV) of folate and iron (table).Food-borne pathogens that can survive on lettuce include Listeria monocytogenes, the causative agent of listeriosis, which multiplies in storage.[52] Lettuce has been linked to numerous outbreaks of the bacteria E.

coli O157:H7 and Shigella; the plants were most likely contaminated through contact with animal feces.[53] A 2007 study determined that the vacuum cooling method, especially prevalent in the California lettuce industry, increased the uptake and survival rates of E. coli O157:H7.In addition to its usual purpose as an edible leafy vegetable, lettuce has had a number of uses in ancient (and even some more modern) folk medicine and religious symbolism.For example, ancient Egyptians thought lettuce to be a symbol of sexual prowess[46] and a promoter of love and childbearing in women.[56] In contrast, the ancient Greeks connected the plant with male impotency,[10] and served it during funerals (probably due to its role in the myth of Adonis' death), and British women in the 19th century believed it would cause infertility and sterility.Romaine lettuce is one of the symbolic items on the Jewish Passover Seder plate as a bitter herb.Some American settlers claimed that smallpox could be prevented through the ingestion of lettuce,[56] and an Iranian belief suggested consumption of the seeds when afflicted with typhoid.[58] Folk medicine has also claimed it as a treatment for pain, rheumatism, tension and nervousness, coughs and insanity;[citation needed] scientific evidence of these benefits in humans has not been found.


Cabbage: Health benefits, facts, research

Many studies have suggested that increasing consumption of plant-based foods like cabbage decreases the risk of diabetes, obesity, heart disease, and overall mortality.A compound found in cabbage and other cruciferous vegetables known as 3,3′-diindolylmethane (DIM) has been shown to increase short-term survival rates in some animal studies on radiation.Research over the past 30 years has consistently shown that consuming cruciferous vegetables is associated with a lower risk of cancer.Promising results at the molecular level have been seen with multiple types of cancers, including melanoma, esophageal, prostate, and pancreatic.Researchers have discovered that sulforaphane has the power to inhibit the harmful enzyme histone deacetylase (HDAC), known to be involved in the progression of cancer cells.The ability to stop HDAC enzymes could make sulforaphane-containing foods a potentially powerful part of cancer treatment.The same potent anthocyanins in red cabbage that help protect against cancer have been shown to suppress the inflammation that may lead to cardiovascular disease.Healthy microbes generate an acidic environment to preserve and develop flavor; the enzymes produced in fermentation make vitamins and minerals easier to absorb.Recent studies have shown that dietary fiber may even play a role in regulating the immune system and inflammation, consequently decreasing the risk of inflammation-related conditions such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, and obesity. .


oleracea), and belongs to the "cole crops" or brassicas, meaning it is closely related to broccoli and cauliflower (var.Under conditions of long sunny days, such as those found at high northern latitudes in summer, cabbages can grow quite large.They can be prepared many different ways for eating; they can be pickled, fermented (for dishes such as sauerkraut), steamed, stewed, sautéed, braised, or eaten raw.[5] A related species, Brassica rapa, is commonly named Chinese, napa or celery cabbage, and has many of the same uses.The original family name of brassicas was Cruciferae, which derived from the flower petal pattern thought by medieval Europeans to resemble a crucifix.[5] Many European and Asiatic names for cabbage are derived from the Celto-Slavic root cap or kap, meaning "head".The cabbage inflorescence , which appears in the plant's second year of growth, features white or yellow flowers, each with four perpendicularly arranged petals.The inflorescence is an unbranched and indeterminate terminal raceme measuring 50–100 cm (20–40 in) tall,[13] with flowers that are yellow or white.Each flower has four petals set in a perpendicular pattern, as well as four sepals, six stamens, and a superior ovary that is two-celled and contains a single stigma and style.The fruit is a silique that opens at maturity through dehiscence to reveal brown or black seeds that are small and round in shape.Leaf types are generally divided between crinkled-leaf, loose-head savoys and smooth-leaf firm-head cabbages, while the color spectrum includes white and a range of greens and purples.Cabbage has been selectively bred for head weight and morphological characteristics, frost hardiness, fast growth and storage ability.The appearance of the cabbage head has been given importance in selective breeding, with varieties being chosen for shape, color, firmness and other physical characteristics.[16] Breeding objectives are now focused on increasing resistance to various insects and diseases and improving the nutritional content of cabbage.Although cabbage has an extensive history,[23] it is difficult to trace its exact origins owing to the many varieties of leafy greens classified as "brassicas".[24] A possible wild ancestor of cabbage, Brassica oleracea, originally found in Britain and continental Europe, is tolerant of salt but not encroachment by other plants and consequently inhabits rocky cliffs in cool damp coastal habitats,[25] retaining water and nutrients in its slightly thickened, turgid leaves.However, genetic analysis is consistent with feral origin of this population, deriving from plants escaped from field and gardens.Because of the wide range of crops developed from the wild B. oleracea, multiple broadly contemporaneous domestications of cabbage may have occurred throughout Europe.Nonheading cabbages and kale were probably the first to be domesticated, before 1000 BC,[28] perhaps by the Celts of central and western Europe,[5] although recent linguistic and genetic evidence enforces a Mediterranean origin of cultivated brassicas.While unidentified brassicas were part of the highly conservative unchanging Mesopotamian garden repertory,[30] it is believed that the ancient Egyptians did not cultivate cabbage,[31] which is not native to the Nile valley, though the word shaw't in Papyrus Harris of the time of Ramesses III has been interpreted as "cabbage".[33] Ptolemaic Egyptians knew the cole crops as gramb, under the influence of Greek krambe, which had been a familiar plant to the Macedonian antecedents of the Ptolemies.[32] By early Roman times, Egyptian artisans and children were eating cabbage and turnips among a wide variety of other vegetables and pulses.[38] The more traditionalist Cato the Elder, espousing a simple Republican life, ate his cabbage cooked or raw and dressed with vinegar; he said it surpassed all other vegetables, and approvingly distinguished three varieties; he also gave directions for its medicinal use, which extended to the cabbage-eater's urine, in which infants might be rinsed.According to Pliny, the Pompeii cabbage, which could not stand cold, is "taller, and has a thick stock near the root, but grows thicker between the leaves, these being scantier and narrower, but their tenderness is a valuable quality".The Greeks and Romans claimed medicinal usages for their cabbage varieties that included relief from gout, headaches and the symptoms of poisonous mushroom ingestion.At the end of Antiquity cabbage is mentioned in De observatione ciborum ("On the Observance of Foods") by Anthimus, a Greek doctor at the court of Theodoric the Great.Cabbage appears among vegetables directed to be cultivated in the Capitulare de villis, composed in 771–800 AD, that guided the governance of the royal estates of Charlemagne.[46] French naturalist Jean Ruel made what is considered the first explicit mention of head cabbage in his 1536 botanical treatise De Natura Stirpium, referring to it as capucos coles ("head-coles").[48] In India, cabbage was one of several vegetable crops introduced by colonizing traders from Portugal, who established trade routes from the 14th to 17th centuries.[51] Sauerkraut was used by Dutch, Scandinavian and German sailors to prevent scurvy during long ship voyages.Jacques Cartier first brought cabbage to the Americas in 1541–42, and it was probably planted by the early English colonists, despite the lack of written evidence of its existence there until the mid-17th century.Cabbage is generally grown for its densely leaved heads, produced during the first year of its biennial cycle.Plants are generally started in protected locations early in the growing season before being transplanted outside, although some are seeded directly into the ground from which they will be harvested.[14] Seedlings typically emerge in about 4–6 days from seeds planted 13 mm (1⁄2 in) deep at a soil temperature between 20 and 30 °C (68 and 86 °F).[14] Closer spacing reduces the resources available to each plant (especially the amount of light) and increases the time taken to reach maturity.When being grown for seed, cabbages must be isolated from other B.

oleracea subspecies, including the wild varieties, by 0.8 to 1.6 km (1⁄2 to 1 mi) to prevent cross-pollination.Fungal diseases include wirestem, which causes weak or dying transplants; Fusarium yellows, which result in stunted and twisted plants with yellow leaves; and blackleg (see Leptosphaeria maculans), which leads to sunken areas on stems and gray-brown spotted leaves.[64] The fungi Alternaria brassicae and A. brassicicola cause dark leaf spots in affected plants.They are both seedborne and airborne, and typically propagate from spores in infected plant debris left on the soil surface for up to twelve weeks after harvest.Rhizoctonia solani causes the post-emergence disease wirestem, resulting in killed seedlings ("damping-off"), root rot or stunted growth and smaller heads.Clubroot, caused by the soilborne slime mold-like organism Plasmodiophora brassicae, results in swollen, club-like roots.[66] The cabbage looper (Trichoplusia ni) is infamous in North America for its voracious appetite and for producing frass that contaminates plants.Factors that contribute to reduced head weight include: growth in the compacted soils that result from no-till farming practices, drought, waterlogging, insect and disease incidence, and shading and nutrient stress caused by weeds.Vacuum cooling rapidly refrigerates the vegetable, allowing for earlier shipping and a fresher product.The simplest options include eating the vegetable raw or steaming it, though many cuisines pickle, stew, sautée or braise cabbage.It is frequently eaten, either cooked or as sauerkraut, as a side dish or as an ingredient in such dishes as bigos (cabbage, sauerkraut, meat, and wild mushrooms, among other ingredients) gołąbki (stuffed cabbage) and pierogi (filled dumplings).Other eastern European countries, such as Hungary and Romania, also have traditional dishes that feature cabbage as a main ingredient.[80] Cabbage is also a moderate source (10–19% DV) of vitamin B6 and folate, with no other nutrients having significant content per 100-gram serving (table).The Ancient Greeks recommended consuming the vegetable as a laxative,[47] and used cabbage juice as an antidote for mushroom poisoning,[84] for eye salves, and for liniments for bruises.[86] Ancient Egyptians ate cooked cabbage at the beginning of meals to reduce the intoxicating effects of wine.The cooling properties of the leaves were used in Britain as a treatment for trench foot in World War I, and as compresses for ulcers and breast abscesses.The latter toxin has been traced to pre-made, packaged coleslaw mixes, while the spores were found on whole cabbages that were otherwise acceptable in appearance.Biological risk assessments have concluded that there is the potential for further outbreaks linked to uncooked cabbage, due to contamination at many stages of the growing, harvesting and packaging processes.Contaminants from water, humans, animals and soil have the potential to be transferred to cabbage, and from there to the end consumer.Cabbage and other cruciferous vegetables contain small amounts of thiocyanate, a compound associated with goiter formation when iodine intake is deficient. .

Grouping Vegetables According to Plant Families

The Lamiaceae family includes plants with leaves containing many small glands that secrete essential oils, making these plants highly fragrant.The Solanaceae family includes herbaceous plants, shrubs, trees, and vines that grow in temperate to tropical regions.The Asteraceae (or Compositae) family is very large, including nearly 13,000 species, mostly herbaceous plants but also some trees, shrubs, and vines.The Liliaceae family includes plants with leaves that are usually vertical and very long, as well as flowers with six colorful petals.The Rosaceae family includes herbaceous and woody plants with alternate leaves and either simple or composite flowers, usually pinkish in color.The Fabaceae family, commonly known as pulses, includes herbaceous plants, shrubs, trees, and vines.The Poaceae family, formerly known as Gramineae, includes nearly 12,000 species in over 700 genera. .

What Is the Difference between Lettuce and Cabbage?

Lettuce and cabbage are two vegetables that, depending on the type, may look very similar.The primary difference between these vegetables is that they are from two different plant families.Alternately, cabbage typically has more vitamin C and fiber than most types of lettuce.When it comes to romaine lettuce, one cup of shredded leaves has approximately eight calories, 4094 IU vitamin A, 11 mg of vitamin C, 116 mg of potassium and one gram of fiber.While both can be eaten in a variety of ways, lettuce is most often eaten raw in salads, on sandwiches or as a garnish for certain types of foods such as tacos. .


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