oleracea), and belongs to the "cole crops" or brassicas, meaning it is closely related to broccoli and cauliflower (var.Under conditions of long sunny days, such as those found at high northern latitudes in summer, cabbages can grow quite large.They can be prepared many different ways for eating; they can be pickled, fermented (for dishes such as sauerkraut), steamed, stewed, roasted, sautéed, braised, or eaten raw. A related species, Brassica rapa, is commonly named Chinese, napa or celery cabbage, and has many of the same uses.The original family name of brassicas was Cruciferae, which derived from the flower petal pattern thought by medieval Europeans to resemble a crucifix. Many European and Asiatic names for cabbage are derived from the Celto-Slavic root cap or kap, meaning "head".The cabbage inflorescence , which appears in the plant's second year of growth, features white or yellow flowers, each with four perpendicularly arranged petals.The inflorescence is an unbranched and indeterminate terminal raceme measuring 50–100 cm (20–40 in) tall, with flowers that are yellow or white.Each flower has four petals set in a perpendicular pattern, as well as four sepals, six stamens, and a superior ovary that is two-celled and contains a single stigma and style.The fruit is a silique that opens at maturity through dehiscence to reveal brown or black seeds that are small and round in shape.Leaf types are generally divided between crinkled-leaf, loose-head savoys and smooth-leaf firm-head cabbages, while the color spectrum includes white and a range of greens and purples.Cabbage has been selectively bred for head weight and morphological characteristics, frost hardiness, fast growth and storage ability.The appearance of the cabbage head has been given importance in selective breeding, with varieties being chosen for shape, color, firmness and other physical characteristics. Breeding objectives are now focused on increasing resistance to various insects and diseases and improving the nutritional content of cabbage.Although cabbage has an extensive history, it is difficult to trace its exact origins owing to the many varieties of leafy greens classified as "brassicas". A possible wild ancestor of cabbage, Brassica oleracea, originally found in Britain and continental Europe, is tolerant of salt but not encroachment by other plants and consequently inhabits rocky cliffs in cool damp coastal habitats, retaining water and nutrients in its slightly thickened, turgid leaves.However, genetic analysis is consistent with feral origin of this population, deriving from plants escaped from field and gardens.Because of the wide range of crops developed from the wild B. oleracea, multiple broadly contemporaneous domestications of cabbage may have occurred throughout Europe.Nonheading cabbages and kale were probably the first to be domesticated, before 1000 BC, perhaps by the Celts of central and western Europe, although recent linguistic and genetic evidence enforces a Mediterranean origin of cultivated brassicas.While unidentified brassicas were part of the highly conservative unchanging Mesopotamian garden repertory, it is believed that the ancient Egyptians did not cultivate cabbage, which is not native to the Nile valley, though the word shaw't in Papyrus Harris of the time of Ramesses III has been interpreted as "cabbage". Ptolemaic Egyptians knew the cole crops as gramb, under the influence of Greek krambe, which had been a familiar plant to the Macedonian antecedents of the Ptolemies. By early Roman times, Egyptian artisans and children were eating cabbage and turnips among a wide variety of other vegetables and pulses. The more traditionalist Cato the Elder, espousing a simple Republican life, ate his cabbage cooked or raw and dressed with vinegar; he said it surpassed all other vegetables, and approvingly distinguished three varieties; he also gave directions for its medicinal use, which extended to the cabbage-eater's urine, in which infants might be rinsed.According to Pliny, the Pompeii cabbage, which could not stand cold, is "taller, and has a thick stock near the root, but grows thicker between the leaves, these being scantier and narrower, but their tenderness is a valuable quality".The Greeks and Romans claimed medicinal usages for their cabbage varieties that included relief from gout, headaches and the symptoms of poisonous mushroom ingestion.At the end of Antiquity cabbage is mentioned in De observatione ciborum ("On the Observance of Foods") by Anthimus, a Greek doctor at the court of Theodoric the Great.Cabbage appears among vegetables directed to be cultivated in the Capitulare de villis, composed in 771–800 AD, that guided the governance of the royal estates of Charlemagne. French naturalist Jean Ruel made what is considered the first explicit mention of head cabbage in his 1536 botanical treatise De Natura Stirpium, referring to it as capucos coles ("head-coles"). In India, cabbage was one of several vegetable crops introduced by colonizing traders from Portugal, who established trade routes from the 14th to 17th centuries. Sauerkraut was used by Dutch, Scandinavian and German sailors to prevent scurvy during long ship voyages.Jacques Cartier first brought cabbage to the Americas in 1541–42, and it was probably planted by the early English colonists, despite the lack of written evidence of its existence there until the mid-17th century.Cabbage is generally grown for its densely leaved heads, produced during the first year of its biennial cycle.Plants are generally started in protected locations early in the growing season before being transplanted outside, although some are seeded directly into the ground from which they will be harvested. Seedlings typically emerge in about 4–6 days from seeds planted 13 mm (1⁄2 in) deep at a soil temperature between 20 and 30 °C (68 and 86 °F). Closer spacing reduces the resources available to each plant (especially the amount of light) and increases the time taken to reach maturity.When being grown for seed, cabbages must be isolated from other B. oleracea subspecies, including the wild varieties, by 0.8 to 1.6 km (1⁄2 to 1 mi) to prevent cross-pollination.Fungal diseases include wirestem, which causes weak or dying transplants; Fusarium yellows, which result in stunted and twisted plants with yellow leaves; and blackleg (see Leptosphaeria maculans), which leads to sunken areas on stems and gray-brown spotted leaves. The fungi Alternaria brassicae and A.
brassicicola cause dark leaf spots in affected plants.They are both seedborne and airborne, and typically propagate from spores in infected plant debris left on the soil surface for up to twelve weeks after harvest.Rhizoctonia solani causes the post-emergence disease wirestem, resulting in killed seedlings ("damping-off"), root rot or stunted growth and smaller heads.Clubroot, caused by the soilborne slime mold-like organism Plasmodiophora brassicae, results in swollen, club-like roots. The cabbage looper (Trichoplusia ni) is infamous in North America for its voracious appetite and for producing frass that contaminates plants.Factors that contribute to reduced head weight include: growth in the compacted soils that result from no-till farming practices, drought, waterlogging, insect and disease incidence, and shading and nutrient stress caused by weeds.Vacuum cooling rapidly refrigerates the vegetable, allowing for earlier shipping and a fresher product.The simplest options include eating the vegetable raw or steaming it, though many cuisines pickle, stew, sautée or braise cabbage.It is frequently eaten, either cooked or as sauerkraut, as a side dish or as an ingredient in such dishes as bigos (cabbage, sauerkraut, meat, and wild mushrooms, among other ingredients) gołąbki (stuffed cabbage) and pierogi (filled dumplings).Other eastern European countries, such as Hungary and Romania, also have traditional dishes that feature cabbage as a main ingredient. Cabbage is also a moderate source (10–19% DV) of vitamin B6 and folate, with no other nutrients having significant content per 100-gram serving (table).The Ancient Greeks recommended consuming the vegetable as a laxative, and used cabbage juice as an antidote for mushroom poisoning, for eye salves, and for liniments for bruises. Ancient Egyptians ate cooked cabbage at the beginning of meals to reduce the intoxicating effects of wine.The cooling properties of the leaves were used in Britain as a treatment for trench foot in World War I, and as compresses for ulcers and breast abscesses.The latter toxin has been traced to pre-made, packaged coleslaw mixes, while the spores were found on whole cabbages that were otherwise acceptable in appearance.Biological risk assessments have concluded that there is the potential for further outbreaks linked to uncooked cabbage, due to contamination at many stages of the growing, harvesting and packaging processes.Contaminants from water, humans, animals and soil have the potential to be transferred to cabbage, and from there to the end consumer.Cabbage and other cruciferous vegetables contain small amounts of thiocyanate, a compound associated with goiter formation when iodine intake is deficient. .
Cabbage Worms: How to Identify and Get Rid of Cabbageworms
Unlike cabbageworms, cabbage loopers raise and lower their bodies as they move because they have no middle legs.Cabbage white butterflies might seem like a pretty addition to the garden, but they are probably laying eggs on the undersides of leaves.Imported cabbageworms feed on the flesh of foliage and often hide on the undersides of leaves. .
8 Organic Ways to Get Rid of Cabbage Worms & Cabbage Moths
But I have good news: there are many easy ways to stop cabbage worms from destroying your garden, and still reap a beautiful, bountiful harvest!Before we dive into the ways to control cabbage moth damage in the garden, let’s briefly familiarize ourselves with these pesky little jerks.“Cabbage worms” is a relatively generic term that refers to a handful of species of small green pest caterpillars.Some cabbage worms are the larvae of small white butterflies, seen flitting around gardens during the day.If you notice white butterflies dancing around your garden, they’re probably laying eggs, and thus creating future destructive cabbage worms.The caterpillars will continue to eat and grow for several weeks, until they’re old enough to form a chrysalis and transform into a cabbage white butterfly (or moth).Manual Removal Floating Row Covers Plant Purple & Red Varieties Use Polyculture & Companion Planting Beneficial Insects Decoy Moths Bacillus Thuringiensis (Bt) Spray Neem Oil Spray.I used to be a bit more squeamish, but the fact of the matter is: manually squishing or removing certain pests right when you see them is sometimes the most quick, easy and effective way to stop them in their tracks.This includes hand-picking cabbage worms and caterpillars from brassicas and leafy greens (which the chickens greatly appreciate, wink wink…) or squishing colonies of aphids.I also know some gardener friends that nab cabbage moths with butterfly nets and tennis rackets!To reduce damage from cabbage worms by hand, you’ll need to inspect your plants frequently.When you’re out on the hunt, keep in mind that cabbage worms are most often found on the underside of leaves, or tucked in the new growth at the plant’s center.Sneaky cabbage worms will also lay along the center vein of a kale leaf, blending in and perfectly disguised.Individual plants, raised beds, or sections thereof can be protected with row covers, traditionally supported on hoop structures.We use them in our garden to prevent cabbage worm damage as well as protect tender young seedlings from wild birds.With the addition of these base extenders, they also fit well across our widest beds (4.5 feet), though they stay fairly short.To provide more “head room” or arch over larger plants like Brussels sprouts and tomatoes, the hi-rise super hoops would work best.It is easy to pull back the row cover material when needed (e.g. for harvesting) and simply leave the hoops in place.If you use the right material and tuck the corners and sides in tight (we use clothes pins for this), row covers can effectively keep out cabbage moths and their caterpillars, along with many other pest insects.Row covers may also protect your plants from squirrels, rabbits, birds, neighborhood cats, and other larger vertebrate pests too!Additionally, variety and polyculture – the term for mixing many types of plants in one space – reduces the chances of widespread devastation by pests that are all attracted to the same crop.For example, brassica companion plants like thyme, dill, oregano, lavender, onions, garlic, and marigolds are said to deter cabbage moths.On the other hand, some companion plants can serve as a “trap crop” and attract cabbage worms – while luring them away from your veggies!However, be sure to periodically remove infested trap crop plants to prevent a booming population of cabbage moths in your garden.For more information on companion planting combinations and natural pest deterrents, be sure to subscribe to our weekly newsletter to receive a free garden planning toolkit!I hand-picked all of these cabbage worms from a potted nasturtium, planted as a trap crop at the end of a bed of collard greens and kale.Parasitic wasps lay their eggs inside or on top of other arthropods, including caterpillars and their pupae.Bt is naturally found on leaves and in soil worldwide, and has been used commercially both in organic and conventional agriculture for over fifty years.Over two decades of review, the EPA and numerous scientific bodies have consistently found that Bt and Bt-crops are not harmful to humans.” Entomological Society of America.When applied to vegetable crops, Bt is considered safe for human consumption even if sprayed the same day as harvest.Yet Bt is even more mild than others, and doesn’t pose the same risk for accidentally burning leaves with improper applications.Concentrated neem oil is diluted and mixed, and then sprayed onto plants for organic pest control.Neem oil is particularly effective at controlling small soft-bodied insects, like aphids, thrips, spider mites, mealybugs, scale, and white flies.Therefore, routinely spraying your garden with a neem oil solution may make your plants less attractive to pests.Used in conjunction with other control methods, neem oil can help the problem – but will not likely prevent or eliminate the presence of cabbage moths entirely.If you want to use neem oil in your garden, I highly suggest you read this article to learn more about how to properly mix and use it.Because neem combats fungal diseases like powdery mildew and doesn’t harm beneficial insects (when used correctly), it can be a great product to use in an organic garden! .
9 Impressive Health Benefits of Cabbage
While it may look a lot like lettuce, it actually belongs to the Brassica genus of vegetables, which includes broccoli, cauliflower and kale (1).It comes in a variety of shapes and colors, including red, purple, white and green, and its leaves can be either crinkled or smooth.This vegetable has been grown around the world for thousands of years and can be found in a variety of dishes, including sauerkraut, kimchi and coleslaw.As you can see in the list above, it is rich in vitamin B6 and folate, both of which are essential for many important processes in the body, including energy metabolism and the normal functioning of the nervous system.In addition, cabbage is high in fiber and contains powerful antioxidants, including polyphenols and sulfur compounds (2).Cabbage is especially high in vitamin C, a potent antioxidant that may protect against heart disease, certain cancers and vision loss ( 3 , 4 , 5 ).In fact, research has shown that eating more cruciferous vegetables reduces certain blood markers of inflammation ( 8 ).Collagen gives structure and flexibility to the skin and is critical for the proper functioning of the bones, muscles and blood vessels ( 12 ).Vitamin C works to protect the body from damage caused by free radicals, which has been associated with many chronic diseases, including cancer ( 14 ).In fact, a recent analysis of 21 studies found that the risk of lung cancer decreased by 7% for each daily 100-mg increase in vitamin C intake ( 17 ).However, this study was limited because it could not determine whether the decreased risk of lung cancer was caused by vitamin C or other compounds found in fruits and vegetables.One cup (89 grams) of chopped red cabbage packs in 85% of the recommended intake for vitamin C, which is the same amount found in a small orange (21).Insoluble fiber helps keep the digestive system healthy by adding bulk to stools and promoting regular bowel movements ( 22 ).These bacteria perform important functions like protecting the immune system and producing critical nutrients like vitamins K2 and B12 ( 24 , 25 ).May Help Keep Your Heart Healthy Red cabbage contains powerful compounds called anthocyanins.Many studies have found a link between eating foods rich in this pigment and a reduced risk of heart disease ( 26 ).In a study including 93,600 women, researchers found that those with a higher intake of anthocyanin-rich foods had a much lower risk of a heart attack ( 27 ).It found that increasing flavonoid intake by 10 mg per day was associated with a 5% lower risk of heart disease (28).Increasing your intake of dietary anthocyanins has also been shown to reduce blood pressure and the risk of coronary artery disease ( 29 , 30 ).Inflammation is known to play a major role in the development of heart disease, and anthocyanins’ protective effect against it is likely due to their anti-inflammatory qualities.However, recent evidence suggests that increasing your dietary potassium is just as important for lowering blood pressure (33).Eating more potassium-rich cabbage is a delicious way to lower high blood pressure and may help keep it within a healthy range (33).A large analysis of 67 studies showed that when people ate 2–10 grams of soluble fiber per day, they experienced a small, yet significant, decrease in LDL cholesterol levels of roughly 2.2 mg per deciliter ( 38 ).Increasing phytosterol intake by 1 gram per day has been found to reduce LDL cholesterol concentrations by as much as 5% ( 40 ).Cabbage is a terrific source of vitamin K1, delivering 85% of the recommended daily amount in a single cup (89 grams) (2).Without vitamin K, the blood would lose its ability to clot properly, increasing the risk of excessive bleeding.It can be eaten raw or cooked and added to a wide variety of dishes like salads, soups, stews and slaws.No matter how you prepare cabbage, adding this cruciferous vegetable to your plate is a tasty way to benefit your health. .
DIY Cabbage Collars To Prevent Cabbage Root Maggots
Cabbage root flies (Delia radicum/Hylemya brassicae) have become problematic in my garden over the last few years.By early summer, I found myself losing at least half of my cole crop plantings to the little buggers.Adult cabbage root flies look a lot like bristly houseflies only slightly smaller.When spring arrives, they pupate into adults, feed on flower nectar, and go onto breed and lay eggs over the course of the next five to six weeks.Female cabbage root flies lay eggs on or in the soil right next to the base of plants in the Brassicaceae family, including cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, kohlrabi, Brussels sprouts, horseradish, and occasionally turnips and radish.The maggots feed on the roots and stems of infested plants for three to four weeks before pupating into adults.I put a collar around each plant by late April because the first generation of adult flies typically starts to emerge in early May through June here in my Pennsylvania garden.Once in place, overlap the cut line slightly until the small flaps are positioned loosely around the plant stem.There should be enough space for the stem to expand, but not enough for the flies to gain access to the soil around the base of the plant. .
Cabbage – Bonnie Plants
Imagine bold shades of white and purple during the garden's quiet seasons of fall and early winter — beautiful!This is an ornamental plant; although the leaves can be eaten, they're really only good for garnish or as a base for such dishes as chicken salad or hors d'oeuvres. .
How to Grow and Care for Cabbage
Common Name Cabbage Botanical Name Brassica oleracea Family Brassicaceae Plant Type Vegetable, biennial, annual Mature Size 1–2 ft. tall, 1–2 ft. wide Sun Exposure Full Soil Type Loamy, well-drained Soil pH Acidic, neutral Hardiness Zones 2–11 (USDA) Native Area Europe.Cabbage is a cool-weather crop that can be planted outdoors a few weeks before your area's last spring frost as long as the soil is workable.You can start seeds indoors around six to eight weeks before your area's projected last spring frost date.You can also plant seeds in the garden in the late summer after the hottest weather has passed for a fall harvest.Choose a sunny spot in the garden with good soil drainage for your cabbage.Avoid planting near other Brassica species, such as broccoli, as they can attract the same pests and diseases.Full sun, meaning around six hours of direct sunlight on most days, is best for cabbage.Cabbage needs consistent soil moisture to produce crisp and juicy heads.Cabbage will also start to struggle once the temperatures reach 80 degrees Fahrenheit or higher.Humidity generally isn’t an issue for cabbage as long as its soil moisture needs are met.Or use an organic vegetable fertilizer that has an even balance of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium (10-10-10 NPK).However, if you are growing cabbage as an annual, your plants won't produce the flower spikes that require pollinating.Produces 2- to 3-pound heads that are resistant to splitting 'January King': Is a purple and green cabbage that is extremely frost-hardy.Is a purple and green cabbage that is extremely frost-hardy 'Murdoc': Has a pointed head and tender, sweet leaves.You can pull up the entire plant or use a sharp knife to cut the head at its base.It also can be stored in a root cellar where the temperature is between 45 degrees Fahrenheit and freezing for approximately three months.An unglazed clay container is ideal because it will allow excess soil moisture to evaporate through its walls.However, if you spot any broken or withering leaves that are dragging or falling off, tear them off or remove them with pruning shears to hinder pests and diseases from infesting or infecting the plant.Take the bottom from your cabbage head, and place it in a shallow dish of water (stem side down).Because cabbage is mainly grown as an annual, you won't need to worry about overwintering your plants.Several fungal diseases, including clubroot, downy mildew, and black rot, can affect cabbage.But you can help prevent problems by choosing disease-resistant varieties and not growing cabbage in the same spot each year, as fungal spores can remain in the soil. .
How to Plant and Grow Cabbage
Vibrantly colored, packed with nutrients, and quick to mature, these crunchy garden giants are a timeless classic that never seem to get old.I enjoy eating them raw in salads or cooked in stir fries, and I especially love them fermented as sauerkraut.It had become a staple on sea voyages because it was easy to preserve, and its high concentration of vitamin C helped prevent scurvy on long journeys.From sauerkraut, to coleslaw, cabbage rolls, and golabki, a Polish dish made with boiled cabbage leaves filled with minced beef or pork, onions, and rice, the variety of ways humans have devised to prepare and enjoy this staple crop are impressive.Perhaps best grown from seedlings, start plants early in spring, about 8 to 10 weeks before the last expected frost, so you can harvest before the summer gets too hot.Fall is a great time to grow cabbage, as these cold tolerant crops tend to improve in flavor after exposure to light frosts.It can also be seeded repeatedly throughout the season for a continual harvest, though plants may need additional care and protection to survive the heat of summer.Since cabbage are heavy feeders, it is important to incorporate plenty of aged manure or compost into the garden bed prior to planting.Using a garden fork, mix in a few inches of compost or aged manure and water thoroughly before setting out seeds or transplants.Splitting happens when the roots absorb too much water at one time and leaf tissue expands quickly.Unable to handle the pressure caused by a sudden increase in water, firm heads are split apart.Root pruning is a technique that can help reduce the amount of moisture plants can absorb, preventing splitting.Prior to an expected heavy rainfall, twist plants gently or cut off a few roots using a sharp knife.Use season extension tools such as row covers to get an early start in spring and/or keep plants growing later into the fall.Cabbage does well when planted near aromatic herbs, which can help repel unwanted pests and improve the flavor of heads.‘Golden Acre’ It produces heads that 5-7 inches in diameter and can be harvested 65 days after planting and can be sown directly into the dirt or started as seedlings.‘Brunswick’ This heirloom is an extremely versatile variety that can be planted at any time throughout the season and needs 85-90 days to mature and produce a six to nine pound head.This variety produces a 7-inch head weighing in at 2-3 pounds and is slightly coned shaped with a sweet flavor.Adults are gray-brown moths, which deposit small green eggs on plants that hatch as destructive larvae in only a few days.Floating row covers can help keep moths from landing on plants and laying eggs.Make a homemade spray with garlic, cayenne pepper, and biodegradable dish soap and apply to the underside of leaves.Flea beetles can also transmit diseases to plants, so it is doubly important to keep infestations under control.Neem oil, which is approved for organic use can also be sprayed on plants to kill beetles in all life stages.Root maggots are white legless critters that lay eggs at the base of young plants.You can also apply paper or cardboard rings around the base of transplants to prevent flies from laying eggs around the stem.Choose resistant varieties, rotate crops, and apply lime to raise soil pH.Another common brassica infecting fungus, this disease causes dark spots on stems and leaves.This bacterial disease that turns leaf veins dark and produces a foul smell.The pathogen can spread throughout the plant through the vascular system, and eventually cause leaves to wilt and die.Move harvested plants into a shady location immediately or bring inside to avoid wilting.When storing, keep all leaves on the heads to protect the inner layers and retain moisture and do not wash until ready to use.Plant Type: Biennial grown as an annual Water Needs: 1.5 inches per week Native to: Europe Maintenance: Moderate Hardiness (USDA Zone): 1-10, depending on type Soil Type: Nutrient rich Season: Spring and fall Soil pH: 6.5-6.8 Exposure: Full sun Soil Drainage: Well-draining Time to Maturity: 30-60 days Companion Planting: Aromatic herbs, onions, garlic, beets, celery Spacing: 12-18 inches Avoid Planting With: Strawberries, tomatoes Planting Depth: 1/4-1/2 inch (seeds) Family: Brassicaceae Height: 12-14 inches Genus: Brassica Spread: 18-24 inches Species: oleracea Tolerance: Salt, frost, heavy lime Cultivar group: var.capitata Common Pests: Caterpillars, cabbage loopers, sawflies, aphids, cutworms, root maggots, whiteflies, flea beetles Common Disease: White spot/leaf spot, black rot, downy mildew, clubroot, blackleg.Grow your own using the guide above and fill your kitchen with creamy casseroles, crunchy salads, and spicy kimchi all winter long. .