With a little bit of planning, and preparation you can grow vegetables well into the winter months or even year round if you live in a warmer climate down south.But regardless of where you live, there are a few crops you can count on to withstand cooler temps, frost, and even sometimes snow.Although beets grow well during warm weather, the seedlings are established more easily under cool, moist conditions.The plant will withstand frost and can be harvested until a hard freeze strikes.Carrots can survive temperatures as low as 15 degrees Fahrenheit, but prolonged periods of cold results in long, pale roots.Carrots can survive temperatures as low as 15 degrees Fahrenheit, but prolonged periods of cold results in long, pale roots.Frost damage on leafy vegetables doesn't render the plant inedible like a disease.Snow can protect plants from extreme cold so that they stay in the garden longer.Parsnips are generally tolerant to 0 °F and will sweeten in flavor if hit with a light frost or two.To extend the harvest season & protect the crops from heavier frosts, just add a thick layer of straw. .
Frost Tolerance in Vegetables
Light Frost:.If you hear that a frost is on the way, even a light one, you should harvest all your "frost-tender" crops such as:.For gardeners located in warmer climates, you may find that crops such as spinach, lettuce, parsnips, carrots, parsley, kale and leeks may survive all winter long.To help these plants overwinter, make sure to mulch them. .
Warning: These Vegetables Will Not Survive a Frost
A freeze or frost is when the nighttime temperature is between 28-32 degrees F.Well, there are two big categories of vegetable plants – the ones that can survive a frost in the garden (frost tolerant vegetables) and the ones that will get killed by frost (non-frost tolerant vegetables).You need to be very familiar with which vegetables fall into each category so you can make sure you’re planting the right vegetable at the right time in the season for it to grow and thrive (and not die!You can get an idea of the general times of year when you can expect frosts in your garden by looking up the average last frost date in spring and average first frost date in fall.What most commonly happens in spring is that gardeners plant vegetables that aren’t frost tolerant too early and then their gardens get hit by a spring frost.If you make this mistake and plant too early you might come out to your garden one morning to find a bunch of dead seedlings that have been killed by cold weather.Now that you understand what a frost is, how to find out your average first and last frosts, and why it’s important to know about frost tolerant vegetables, let’s get into which vegetables actually fall into that category.Luckily, many of the vegetables we have planted in our gardens in early spring and fall are frost tolerant.In the spring, you can plant the below list of vegetables before your average last frost.If my 10 day forecast lists temperatures in the upper 20’s and 30’s F I’ll go ahead and plant some of the frost tolerant vegetables on this list.In the fall, you’ll be pleasantly surprised at how well the frost tolerant vegetables are doing as the nighttime temperatures start decreasing. .
Protect Your Veggies from Freezing! Cover and tuck 'em in!
Chilly 2012 Winter Solstice morning, Pilgrim Terrace Community Garden, Santa Barbara CA.Cool season crops , such as broccoli, cabbage, peas, and onions, originated in northern areas, and can tolerate frost and light freezes of short durations with little damage, plant cold hardy varieties.But other tender morsels often die literal black deaths from killing freezes., such as broccoli, cabbage, peas, and onions, originated in northern areas, and can tolerate frost and light freezes of short durations with little damage, plant cold hardy varieties.But other tender morsels often die literal black deaths from killing freezes.Cool-season vegetables, such as carrots, broccoli, cauliflower, and Brussels sprouts, produce their best flavor when they mature during cool weather.They react to cold conditions and frost by producing sugars, making them taste sweet, especially Brussels sprouts and kale, but also parsnips and leeks!Cool-season vegetables, such as carrots, broccoli, cauliflower, and Brussels sprouts, produce their best flavor when they mature during cool weather.They react to cold conditions and frost by producing sugars, making them taste sweet, especially Brussels sprouts and kale, but also parsnips and leeks!When there are several days at low temps , cole crops (cabbage, broccoli, and cauliflower) and onion sets, produce a seed stalk, called bolting.Unless you want to save seeds, at that point, harvest good leaves for greens, give the remaining plant to your compost., cole crops (cabbage, broccoli, and cauliflower) and onion sets, produce a seed stalk, called Unless you want to save seeds, at that point, harvest good leaves for greens, give the remaining plant to your compost.The upper part of a plant may die, but the roots may be strong enough to push up new growth!The upper part of a plant may die, but the roots may be strong enough to push up new growth!Move frost tender plants under eaves, a spreading tree, into greenhouses, garage.Haunt yard sales, the thrift shop, for old bed sheets, blankets, tablecloths, curtains, towels, shower curtains, burlap sacks, tarps – many end their lives covering garden plants for frost protection!The beauty of floating row covers (see image), also called frost or winter blankets, is they can be left in place during the day!The beauty of (see image), also called frost or winter blankets, is they can be left in place during the day!Root crops such as carrots and radishes should be harvested or mulched heavily before a hard freeze.Should you trim the ugly damaged stuff off and give your plant a lot of fertilizer to help it?If you trim and add a lot of fertilizer, tender new growth will form, and that will be toast if there is another frost or freeze.Better to have a yard full of ghosts (sheet covers) and look silly, than lose your plants.Watch WEATHER reports in case of freezes, heavy winds, rain.That can vary from the coastal areas to the foothills, and our climate is changing generally to warmer, so these dates may not be viable guides much longer, if even now….The Green Bean Connection started as correspondence for the Santa Barbara CA USA Pilgrim Terrace Community Garden.During late spring/summer we are often in a fog belt/marine layer most years, locally referred to as the May grays, June glooms and August fogusts. .
8 Organic Ways to Get Rid of Cabbage Worms & Cabbage Moths
Cabbage worms are one of the most common pests in the garden.Also, please keep in mind that an organic garden is not a perfect one.What are Cabbage Moths and Cabbage Worms?“Cabbage worms” is a relatively generic term that refers to a handful of species of small green pest caterpillars.We have found cabbage worms on a wide variety of other plants in our garden, including flowers.Some cabbage worms are the larvae of small white butterflies, seen flitting around gardens during the day.The white butterflies are often referred to as “cabbage whites” or “cabbage moths” – even though they aren’t really moths at all.Both cabbage worms and cabbage loopers are controlled in the same manner.Cabbage moths or butterflies don’t directly damage plants themselves.As the larvae of cabbage moths and butterflies emerge from their eggs, the cabbage worms begin to immediately feed on the surrounding plant matter.This creates little holes in the leaves, expanding to larger holes – or to completely demolished leaves and plants as the caterpillars grow in size and population.Now that you know more about their lifecycle, here are several ways to control cabbage worms in your garden – organically!Manual Removal Floating Row Covers Plant Purple & Red Varieties Use Polyculture & Companion Planting Beneficial Insects Decoy Moths Bacillus Thuringiensis (Bt) Spray Neem Oil Spray.It can be effective to squish or collect cabbage worms by hand, but you can also go after cabbage moth eggs.Cabbage moth eggs shown on top, and a cabbage worm (and its tell-tale poop) on the bottom.One of the best ways to keep cabbage worms from eating your plants is to prevent cabbage moths from accessing the plants at all!Some row covers are used to stop insects, while others may be used for frost-protection or providing shade.With the row covers removed for photos and harvesting.Even with the plants fully grown in, we still lay the floating row covers on top of the hoops (and parts rest directly on the plants too, which is more than okay) and secure it to the hoops with clothes pins.If you use the right material and tuck the corners and sides in tight (we use clothes pins for this), row covers can effectively keep out cabbage moths and their caterpillars, along with many other pest insects.See this article all about hoops and row covers to learn more – including tips about DIY PVC hoops, and using row covers for shade or frost protection.In a garden bed of both red and green cabbage, the cabbage moths will almost exclusively lay eggs on the green cabbage!Planted in the same bed, every green cabbage has cabbage worm damage – while the red cabbages are all unblemished.So, choosing red and purple varieties of the cabbage family is one way to reduce cabbage worm damage.4) Polyculture & Companion Planting to Deter Cabbage Moths.On the other hand, some companion plants can serve as a “trap crop” and attract cabbage worms – while luring them away from your veggies!I hand-picked all of these cabbage worms from a potted nasturtium, planted as a trap crop at the end of a bed of collard greens and kale.6) Beneficial Insects: Parasitic Wasps.Namely, it kills caterpillars.Bt is ONLY toxic against the larvae of butterflies or moths.Therefore, Bt is commonly used to control cabbage worms and cabbage loopers on the brassica plant family.Bt spray is available to purchase either pre-mixed, or as a concentrate that must be diluted before it is applied to plants.How to Use Bt in the Garden.When mixing your Bt spray, follow the directions on the Bt product you purchase.Concentrated neem oil is diluted and mixed, and then sprayed onto plants for organic pest control.Therefore, routinely spraying your garden with a neem oil solution may make your plants less attractive to pests.If you want to use neem oil in your garden, I highly suggest you read this article to learn more about how to properly mix and use it. .
Winter Kill Temperatures of Winter-Hardy Vegetables 2016
For several years, 2015, 2104, 2013, 2012 my friend and neighboring grower Ken Bezilla of Southern Exposure Seed Exchange and I have been keeping records of how well our crops do in the colder season.It’s worth noting that in a hoophouse plants can tolerate lower temperatures than those listed here: they have the pleasant daytime conditions in which to recover.25°F (-4°C): Chervil, chicory roots for chicons, and hearts, Chinese Napa cabbage (Blues), dill, endive (hardier than lettuce, Escarole more frost-hardy than Frisée), annual fennel, some mustards and Asian greens (Maruba Santoh, Mizuna, most Pak Choy, Tokyo Bekana), onion scallions (some much more hardy), radicchio.15°F (-9.5°C): Some beets (Albina Verduna, Lutz Winterkeeper), beet leaves, some cabbage (Kaitlin, Tribute), celery (Ventura) with rowcover, cilantro, endive, fava beans (Aquadulce Claudia), Russian kales, kohlrabi, some lettuce, especially medium-sized plants (Marvel of Four Seasons, Olga, Rouge d’hiver, Tango, Winter Density), curly leaf parsley, flat leaf parsley, large leaves of broad leaf sorrel, turnip leaves, winter cress.12°F (-11°C): Some beets (Cylindra,), some cabbage (January King, Savoy types), carrots (Danvers, Oxheart), most collards, some fava beans (not the best flavored ones), garlic tops if fairly large, most fall or summer varieties of leeks (Lincoln, King Richard), large tops of potato onions, rutabagas (if mulched), Senposai leaves (the core of the plant may survive 10F), some turnips (Purple Top), winter radish including daikon (may survive colder).10°F (-12°C): Beets with rowcover, Purple Sprouting broccoli for spring harvest, Brussels sprouts, chard (green chard is hardier than multi-colored types), a few varieties of cabbage (Deadon), some collards (Morris Heading can survive at least one night at 10F), Belle Isle upland cress, some endive (Perfect, President), young stalks of Bronze fennel, probably Komatsuna, some leeks (American Flag, Jaune du Poiteau), some head lettuce under row cover (Pirat, Red Salad Bowl, Salad Bowl, Sylvesta, Winter Marvel), large leaves of savoyed spinach (more hardy than flat leafed varieties), Tatsoi, Yukina Savoy.0°F (-18°C): Chives, some collards (Blue Max, Winner), corn salad (mache), garlic, horseradish, Jerusalem artichokes, a few leeks (Alaska, Durabel); some bulb onions, some onion scallions (Evergreen Winter Hardy White, White Lisbon), parsnips (probably even colder), salad burnet, salsify, some spinach (Bloomsdale Savoy, Olympia, Tyee).Austrian Winter Field Peas and Crimson clover (used as cover crops) are hardy down to -10°F (-23°C). .
Cabbage Worms: How to Identify and Get Rid of Cabbageworms
Unlike cabbageworms, cabbage loopers raise and lower their bodies as they move because they have no middle legs.Cabbage white butterflies might seem like a pretty addition to the garden, but they are probably laying eggs on the undersides of leaves.They feed on foliage, and eventually they can leave plants only with stems and large veins. .
Frost Damage in the Fall Vegetable Garden
When water vapor condenses and freezes instead of forming dew, we see ice crystals on outdoor surfaces.Frost damage occurs when ice crystals form inside the tissue of vulnerable plants, causing it to split open and leaching away essential nutrients.Vegetables vary, ranging from able to withstand a freeze to being unable to tolerate even a light frost.When a vegetable is referred to as “hardy,” according to James Myers, plant breeder and researcher atOregon State University this means it can withstand heavy frost and air temperatures below 28°F.Hardy crops thrive in cool weather with three to six hours of sun per day.Then there are the more fragile crops we refer to as “tender.” They require temperatures above 32°F and may tolerate a light frost.Tender vegetables need eight hours of sun per day to flourish, and cannot be planted outside until the last average frost date in spring has passed.Summer planting must take place early enough to allow for maturity before the first average frost date in fall.They can’t tolerate any degree of ice crystal formation, and must be planted after all risk of frost has passed.As the first frost date approaches, continue watering, taking care to aim your hose at the soil level near the roots, and not over the foliage.It allows your crops to absorb moisture, enabling them to retain daytime warmth and generate heat through the evaporative process of transpiration.Harvest mature crops, as well as those that continue to ripen after picking, like peppers and tomatoes.Mark plant locations, as the foliage of crops like beets, garlic, and radishes may become water-logged, limp, and unrecognizable.Some folks swear by a thick layer of mulch, but the Farmers’ Almanac warns that this actually invites ice formation, by trapping moisture and heat that would otherwise be released to warm the air around the vegetation.Finally, when covering plants, be sure to anchor protective materials firmly using bricks, rocks, or stakes to prevent them from blowing away in a strong wind.However, the foliage of tender types may be dark green and limp, resembling cooked spinach.Per the experts at Iowa State University Extension and Outreach, the notion that rhubarb stalks become poisonous after frost is an old wives’ tale.Now that you understand the frost process, crop hardiness, protective measures, and potential damage, you’re ready to meet the challenges of late-season gardening.Hardy plants are your best bet for resilience; however, even half-hardy and tender types may survive when covered.If you’re a huge fan of tender veggies, you may want to consider building your own greenhouse to extend the growing season with ample weather protection.It’s time to browse the latest seed catalogs and sketch out your best veggie garden ever!If you found this guide valuable, you’ll also find some good info here:. .