They’re high in fiber, vitamin C and antioxidants (1).Research shows that eating onions may be associated with a wide array of health benefits.Summary Onions are high in antioxidants and may help reduce blood sugar.Sweet Potatoes Share on Pinterest Sweet potatoes are vibrant and delicious root vegetables that are highly nutritious and jam-packed with health benefits.Due to their vitamin A content, some studies suggest that this root vegetable may also improve immune function, protect against vision loss and support skin health ( 11 , 12 , 13 ).Sweet potatoes can be baked, boiled, roasted or sautéed and enjoyed as a delicious side dish or added to everything from sandwiches to salads to breakfast bowls.Summary Sweet potatoes may help improve blood sugar control and are.Additionally, studies show that consuming more cruciferous vegetables, such as turnips, may be associated with a lower risk of stomach, breast, colorectal and lung cancer ( 16 , 17 , 18 , 19 ).root as well as cruciferous vegetable.Each serving of garlic boasts a good amount of several important nutrients, including manganese, vitamin B6 and vitamin C (32).Studies have found that garlic can promote heart health by lowering blood pressure and levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides ( 34 , 35 , 36 ).It may help improve your immunity, reduce blood pressure and decrease.Radishes also have antifungal properties and have been effective against several types of fungus in test-tube and animal studies ( 40 , 41 ).Not only that, but one rat study found that the leaves of the radish plant may protect against stomach ulcers ( 42 ).Summary Radishes contain a good amount of fiber and vitamin C. They may.Fennel Share on Pinterest Known for its licorice-like flavor, fennel is a flowering plant species closely related to carrots.Eating carrots has been linked to improved antioxidant status and lower cholesterol levels in both humans and animals ( 49 , 50 ).Celeriac Share on Pinterest Also known as celery root, celeriac is a highly versatile and delicious root vegetable that’s easy to cook and enjoy.Summary Celeriac is a nutrient-rich root vegetable that’s high in.vitamin K, a vitamin that is necessary for blood clotting and bone health.Turmeric contains a compound called curcumin, which has been shown to prevent blood clot formation, lower cholesterol levels and reduce markers of inflammation in both test-tube and animal studies ( 59 , 60 , 61 ).Research in humans also suggests that curcumin may alleviate joint pain, stabilize blood sugar levels and decrease symptoms of depression ( 62 , 63 , 64 ).Summary Turmeric contains curcumin, a compound that has been associated.They’re also very nutritious, packing a good chunk of fiber, vitamin C, vitamin B6, potassium and manganese (68).Summary Potatoes pack many nutrients and are high in resistant starch.Rutabagas are also a good source of fiber, which can help support your digestive health and lower blood pressure and cholesterol levels ( 75 ).

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List of root vegetables

Plant root used as a vegetable.Although botany distinguishes true roots (such as taproots and tuberous roots) from non-roots (such as bulbs, corms, rhizomes, and tubers, although some contain both hypocotyl and taproot tissue), the term "root vegetable" is applied to all these types in agricultural and culinary usage (see Vegetable#Terminology).Of particular economic importance are those with a high carbohydrate concentration in the form of starch; starchy root vegetables are important staple foods, particularly in tropical regions, overshadowing cereals throughout much of Central Africa, West Africa and Oceania, where they are used directly or mashed to make foods such as fufu or poi.List of root vegetables [ edit ]. .

Root Vegetables - an overview

Specifically, lutein and zeaxanthin are concentrated in the macula of the eye and may be important in preventing macular degeneration.Intake of dietary lycopene, as found in red and some purple carrots, has been associated with a reduced incidence of some forms of cancer.Lycopene, which has much higher antioxidant potential than β-carotene, is also associated with a reduced risk of serum lipid oxidation and heart disease.Total concentration of all identified phenolic acids is greatest in the purple carrots followed by orange, white, and yellow.Anthocyanins in purple and black carrots act as powerful antioxidants to sequester harmful free radicals in the body; however, human data are lacking.Falcarinol may be involved in carrot and parsnip beneficial health effects including anti-inflammatory, antiplatelet aggregation, and potential anticancer activity.Beet leaves also contain a substantial amount of lutein and zeaxanthin and thus have health benefits associated with those carotenoids as detailed earlier for carrots.Betalains in beet extract reduced tumors associated with skin and lung cancer in mice, but no human studies have been done to date that demonstrate substantial health benefits.Betalains have a large nonpolar surface area that allows them to interact with lipid membranes and low-density lipoprotein particles in the blood reducing oxidation.The occurrence of beeturia is probably related more to an individual's physiological conditions (such as stomach acidity), nutritional status, type of beet, and amount consumed, rather than genetics as previously thought. .

Carrot

sativus) is a root vegetable, typically orange in color, though purple, black, red, white, and yellow cultivars exist,[2][3][4] all of which are domesticated forms of the wild carrot, Daucus carota, native to Europe and Southwestern Asia.The domestic carrot has been selectively bred for its greatly enlarged, more palatable, less woody-textured taproot.The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) reports that world production of carrots and turnips (these plants are combined by the FAO) for 2018 was 40 million tonnes, with 45% of the world total grown in China.The word is first recorded in English circa 1530 and was borrowed from Middle French carotte,[6] itself from Late Latin carōta, from ancient Greek καρωτόν karōtón), originally from the Proto-Indo-European root *ker- ('horn'), due to its horn-like shape.In Old English, carrots (typically white at the time) were not clearly distinguished from parsnips: the two were collectively called moru or more (from Proto-Indo-European *mork- 'edible root', cf.Both written history and molecular genetic studies indicate that the domestic carrot has a single origin in Central Asia.A naturally occurring subspecies of the wild carrot was presumably bred selectively over the centuries to reduce bitterness, increase sweetness and minimise the woody core; this process produced the familiar garden vegetable.Carrot seeds have been found in Switzerland and Southern Germany dating back to 2000–3000 BC.[10] Some close relatives of the carrot are still grown for their leaves and seeds, such as parsley, cilantro, coriander, fennel, anise, dill and cumin.The plant is depicted and described in the Eastern Roman Juliana Anicia Codex, a 6th-century AD Constantinopolitan copy of the Greek physician Dioscorides' 1st-century pharmacopoeia of herbs and medicines, De Materia Medica.Three different types[clarification needed] of carrots are depicted, and the text states that "the root can be cooked and eaten".[15] Another copy of this work, Codex Neapolitanes from late 6th or early 7th century, has basically the same illustrations but with roots in purple.[11] The 11th-century Jewish scholar Simeon Seth describes both red and yellow carrots,[19] as does the 12th-century Arab-Andalusian agriculturist, Ibn al-'Awwam.Outwardly purple carrots, still orange on the inside, were sold in British stores beginning in 2002.Most of the taproot consists of a pulpy outer cortex (phloem) and an inner core (xylem).Individual flowers are borne on undivided pedicels originating from a common node.Top view of Daucus carota inflorescence, showing umbellets; the central flower is dark red.Individual flowers are small and white, sometimes with a light green or yellow tint.After fertilization and as seeds develop, the outer umbellets of an umbel bend inward causing the umbel shape to change from slightly convex or fairly flat to concave, and when cupped it resembles a bird's nest.Premature separation (shattering) before harvest is undesirable because it can result in seed loss.The bristly hairs that protrude from some ribs are usually removed by abrasion during milling and cleaning.Polyacetylenes can be found in Apiaceae vegetables like carrots where they show cytotoxic activities.This latter compound shows antifungal activity towards Mycocentrospora acerina and Cladosporium cladosporioides.Other compounds such as pyrrolidine (present in the leaves),[33] 6-hydroxymellein,[34] 6-methoxymellein, eugenin, 2,4,5-trimethoxybenzaldehyde (gazarin) or (Z)-3-acetoxy-heptadeca-1,9-diene-4,6-diin-8-ol (falcarindiol 3-acetate) can also be found in carrot.Fertilizer should be applied according to soil type because the crop requires low levels of nitrogen, moderate phosphate and high potash.After sprouting, the crop is eventually thinned to a spacing of 8 to 10 cm (3 to 4 in) and weeded to prevent competition beneath the soil.The most devastating carrot disease is Alternaria leaf blight, which has been known to eradicate entire crops.A bacterial leaf blight caused by Xanthomonas campestris can also be destructive in warm, humid areas.The two main forms of damage are splitting, whereby a longitudinal crack develops during growth that can be a few centimetres to the entire length of the root, and breaking, which occurs postharvest.Factors associated with high levels of splitting include wide plant spacing, early sowing, lengthy growth durations, and genotype.[44] Carrots thrive in the presence of caraway, coriander, chamomile, marigold and Swan River daisy.[38] They can also be good companions for other plants; if left to flower, the carrot, like any umbellifer, attracts predatory wasps that kill many garden pests."Eastern" (a European and American continent reference) carrots were domesticated in Persia (probably in the lands of modern-day Iran and Afghanistan within West Asia) during the 10th century, or possibly earlier.Specimens of the "eastern" carrot that survive to the present day are commonly purple or yellow, and often have branched roots.Although the roots are shorter than other cultivars, they have vigorous foliage and greater girth, being broad in the shoulders and tapering towards a blunt, rounded tip.These have strong foliage and the roots are longer than Chantenay types, and they have a conical shape with a well-defined shoulder, tapering to a point.This cultivar has vigorous foliage, is of high sugar content, and has long and slender roots, tapering to a pointed tip.These have sparse foliage, are cylindrical, short with a more blunt tip than Imperator types, and attain high yields in a range of conditions.[2][3] One particular cultivar lacks the usual orange pigment due to carotene, owing its white colour to a recessive gene for tocopherol (vitamin E), but this cultivar and wild carrots do not provide nutritionally significant amounts of vitamin E.[50].[55] Alternatively they may be chopped and boiled, fried or steamed, and cooked in soups and stews, as well as baby and pet foods.[56] Together with onion and celery, carrots are one of the primary vegetables used in a mirepoix to make various broths.[61][62] When used for this purpose, they are harvested young in high-density plantings, before significant root development, and typically used stir-fried, or in salads.In a 2010 study on the prevalence of food allergies in Europe, 3.6 percent of young adults showed some degree of sensitivity to carrots.In India carrots are used in a variety of ways, as salads or as vegetables added to spicy rice or dal dishes.Carrots can also be cut in thin strips and added to rice, can form part of a dish of mixed roast vegetables or can be blended with tamarind to make chutney.Highly excessive consumption over a period of time can result in carotenemia, a yellow-orange discoloration of the skin caused by a build up of carotenoids.Raw carrots are 88% water, 9% carbohydrates, 0.9% protein, 2.8% dietary fiber, 1% ash and 0.2% fat.[72] Carrot dietary fiber comprises mostly cellulose, with smaller proportions of hemicellulose, lignin and starch.The carrot gets its characteristic, bright orange colour from β-carotene, and lesser amounts of α-carotene, γ-carotene, lutein, and zeaxanthin.[73] α- and β-carotenes are partly metabolized into vitamin A,[74][75] providing more than 100% of the Daily Value (DV) per 100 g serving of carrots (right table).[76] This myth was propaganda used by the Royal Air Force during the Second World War to explain why their pilots had improved success during night air battles, but was actually used to disguise advances in radar technology and the use of red lights on instrument panels.Nevertheless, the consumption of carrots was advocated in Britain at the time as part of a Dig for Victory campaign.A radio programme called The Kitchen Front encouraged people to grow, store and use carrots in various novel ways, including making carrot jam and Woolton pie, named after the Lord Woolton, the Minister for Food.Simon, Philipp W.; Freeman, Roger E.; Vieira, Jairo V.; Boiteux, Leonardo S.; Briard, Mathilde; Nothnagel, Thomas; Michalik, Barbara; Kwon, Young-Seok (2008). .

A Guide to Root Vegetables

Yams, beets, parsnips, turnips, rutabagas, carrots, yuca, kohlrabi, onions, garlic, celery root (or celeriac), horseradish, daikon, turmeric, jicama, Jerusalem artichokes, radishes, and ginger are all considered roots.How Do You Store Root Vegetables?These are some of my favorites to cook with:.Among the most usable, user-friendly, and palatable, sweet potatoes and yams are great mashed, pureed and made into soup, roasted, and baked into muffins, cookies, pancakes and so much more.Beets.Beets have an earthy, sweet flavor, and are best when roasted (see how to roast beets here), steamed, or left raw and shredded.While turnips are versatile, they are very subtle in flavor, which makes them great for pairing with more strongly flavored vegetables.Crisp and sweet, carrots are perhaps the most popular root vegetable because they are perfect for eating raw.They're even delicious in baked goods, like these vegan carrot muffins.Starchy and subtle in flavor, yuca is often used the same way in cooking as potatoes.Kohlrabi can be cooked or left raw, and it makes delicious oven-baked fries.Get some more kohlrabi cooking ideas here.With a sweet, spicy, yet creamy flavor, ginger can be used in a large variety of foods and drinks.Onions and garlic are widely used in cooking, as they both add a great deal of flavor to any dish, both raw and cooked.How Do You Prepare Root Vegetables?Because root vegetables are hard and have an earthy flavor, they are most palatable when cooked.Mashed celery root or yams make healthful replacements for mashed potatoes, and any root can blended up into a creamy soup.These simple Spice Roasted Root Vegetables are an easy and delicious dish, and they're a guaranteed way to get the vegetable-averse to eat and enjoy their veggies.Making a vegetable sauté or stir fry is a great way of preparing root vegetables.When cooking with other types of vegetables besides roots, sauté the roots first, as they take longer to cook than other vegetables.Roots can be peeled, thinly sliced, brushed with oil, and grilled along with other summer vegetables. .

Advances in research on the carrot, an important root vegetable in

F 1 -hybrid breeding based on cytoplasmic male sterility is the main method of carrot breeding28.In 2018, Tan et al. found a wild petaloid male sterile carrot line (Wuye-BY).The male sterile carrot line has no swollen storage root, petal or anther.Molecular markers are a new way to identify germplasm resources based on DNA and mRNA polymorphisms.They can be used in identifying core collections and examining the genetic relationship between parents in breeding research38.In a study by Briard and colleagues, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was found to perform better than morphological or isoenzymatic markers in the varietal identification of carrot40.In the research of Grzebelus and colleagues, RAPD and AFLP were used to analyze the genetic diversity of carrots.Six sequence-tagged site (STS) primer combinations were used to identify the carrot petaloid type of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS).In the research of Baranski et al., 88 carrot accessions mainly from Europe, North America, and Asia were collected.In the research of Wally et al., functional genes (OsPOC1, OsPrx114, and AtNPR1) from other species were overexpressed in carrots to enhance fungal and disease resistance.The transgenic lines overexpressing OsPrx114 displayed high disease resistance compared with the control54.In addition to resistance breeding, genetic engineering was also used to accumulate some special components by overexpressing characteristic genes in carrots.In the research of Luchakivskaya et al., HuINFα-2b was overexpressed in carrots to enhance the accumulation of human interferon alpha-2b protein.In recent years, the genome editing method based on the CRISPR/Cas9 system has developed rapidly.These results suggest that the CRISPR/Cas9 system will be an important and useful method for further research on gene function in carrots.Transgenic breeding of carrots has been widely applied in experimental studies, and many important functional genes have been determined by overexpression or genome editing.Carrots infected by this typical disease will show stunting, yellowing, leaf bronzing, sterility and leaf-like petals63.In the breeding process, “Scarlet Nantes”, “Royal Chantenay”, and “Gold King” were found to have higher resistance to aster yellows and “Danvers 126”, “Py-60”, and “Spartan Bonus 80” were more susceptible63.Fungal leaf blights are mainly caused by A. dauci (Kühn) and Cercospora carotae (Pass.).From 1977 to 1978, Ellis and his group performed carrot fly resistance breeding at 12 different locations in England.A total of eight varieties with different resistances were cultivated, including “Clause’s Sytan Original”, “Gelbe Rheinische”, “Vertou LD”, “Clause’s Jaune Obtuse de Doubs”, “Royal Chantenay Elite (Rota) No.275”, “Long Chantenay”, “Danvers Half Long 126”, and “St.To overcome the effect of environmental factors in variety selection, Ellis and his group developed inbred carrots by using a single seed descent program.The resistance of “Sytan” to carrot flies has been demonstrated in Canada, Germany, Ireland, New Zealand, and the UK69,73,74,75.The characteristics of RKNs (present in soil and having a broad host range) and the limited use of nematicides lead to difficulty in controlling the pathogen80.Through the use of molecular markers (RPAD and QTL), a locus named Mj-1 that imparts resistance to M. javanica was found in the “Brasilia” cultivar79,85. .

Getting to the Root of the Root Vegetables

Checking out in-season charts will help you determine in the large family of root vegetables what’s in season regardless of the month you’re currently in.The fact that they can be cooked in a variety of ways and mixed with other types of vegetables means you can do lots with them.While so many good things can be said about root vegetables, Harvard Health Publishing suggests we be a bit thoughtful about their use.Root vegetables are eaten raw, steamed or boiled, roasted, sautéed and grilled.Carrots are best known for being rich in beta carotene, a compound that may reduce heart disease and certain types of cancer, and Vitamin A, which bolsters vision, bone growth and tooth development.In the 1600s, Dutch agriculturalists developed carrots that emphasized orange tints and phased out purple.The tinkering didn't stop there: Researchers at Southern Illinois University report that the British developed high-carotene carrots during World War II in order to enhance pilots' night vision.Today, geneticists are breeding carrots in a wide color spectrum, including purple, red and yellow, all with slightly different nutritional properties.High in fiber, vitamin C and folate, parsnips make a nutrient-rich alternative to the potato when mashed or roasted as a side dish.Fresh beets offer more than just crunch and a variety of colors -- the greens attached to the beets are also tasty and can be sautéed with garlic and some olive oil and be eaten just like spinach or used in soups to provide some extra texture and nutrition.Cut off the top, drizzle with olive oil, wrap in tin foil, and roast at 400 degrees until the cloves (only 4 calories apiece) are soft and spreadable.Probably to all the wonderful flavor they contribute to a recipe, Americans consume about 20 pounds of onions per capita every year.A serving of onion has only 45 calories and can transform the taste and aroma of casseroles, sautés, salads and sandwiches -- and just about anything else.The big, yellow root vegetables have a stronger, more peppery flavor than their mild-mannered turnip cousins, and have more vitamin A and beta carotene, as well. .

The Difference Between Tubers & Root Crops

These plants have been providing humans with nutritious food for thousands of years.More specifically, it’s an enlarged storage organ, but it develops from elongated stem tissue, or rhizome.More specifically, it’s an enlarged storage organ, but it develops from elongated stem tissue, or rhizome.Their purpose is to store nutrients for the plants in order to generate healthy new growth each spring.Instead, enlarged rhizomes spread horizontally, and along these stems are nodes or eyes.These nodes may grow up through the surface as shoots and stems or down into the soil like roots.Unlike root plants, you can cut tubers apart and replant them and they'll grow.Sweet potatoes, native to America, grow in different colors, including orange, white, yellow and red.It has a short shelf life, however, which makes it hard to grow commercially.Sweet potatoes, native to America, grow in different colors, including orange, white, yellow and red.Carrots, with their hairy stems, are a good example of a root vegetable.Carrots, like other root vegetables, contain nutrients and starches for growing the above-ground plant.All of these vegetables, along with edible tubers, are full of nutritious starch that provides energy for both plants and humans. .

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