This makes it pretty interesting that kale and cabbage — along with broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower, collard greens, and kohlrabi, and several other vegetables — all come from the exact same plant species: Brassica oleracea.About 2500 years ago, B. oleracea was solely a wild plant that grew along the coast of Britain, France, and countries in the Mediterranean.Though they're all the same species, these various crops are cultivars — different varieties bred to have desirable qualities for human purposes.This also happens with domesticated animals: we pick out the qualities we prize, whether it's the ability to produce lots of milk (dairy cows) or friendliness and loyalty (dogs). .
These Common Vegetables Are Actually All the Same Plant
Over the last few thousand years, farmers have bred Brassica Oleracea into six "cultivars" that eventually became many of the vegetables we eat:."The wild plant is a weedy little herb that prefers to grow on limestone outcroppings all around the coastal Mediterranean region," Jeanne Osnas, a researcher at Purdue University who blogs as "The Botanist in the Kitchen," writes in a blog post about Brassica Oleracea."It is a biennial plant that uses food reserves stored over the winter in its rosette of leaves to produce a spike of a few yellow flowers at the end of its second summer before dying.By selecting and breeding plants with bigger leaves, or larger buds, the different cultivars (also known as subspecies) were created.Broccoli was created from a kale predecessor in the 1500s by selecting for the larger flower clusters, which are then harvested before they bloom. .
Brassicas That Come From The Same Plant: Broccoli, Cauliflower
Brassicas That Come From The Same Plant: Broccoli, Cauliflower, Brussels Sprouts, Cabbage, Collard Greens, Kale, Kohlrabi.Ancient farmers bred half a dozen of the leafy greens we depend on to keep our doctors off our backs today by tinkering with this one common European plant.Some selected for different kinds of leaves to create what we call kale, Chinese broccoli, and collard greens.While botanists don't have a complete understanding of the history of Brassica oleracea, its domestication, or its evolution into different vegetables, we do know that humans began toying with the plant's genetics before the time of Ancient Greece.It was created by breeding for more plant tissue in the main stem while keeping the terminal bud small.Over time, and through careful cultivation, the thick stem became a bulb-like structure from which the plant's leaves grew.When you purchase kohlrabi from the grocery store or farmer's market, the leaves have usually been removed, but you can still see the small stems.As far back as the 1500s, farmers successfully transformed the biennial Brassicas oleracea into an annual plant that thus flowered sooner.Most likely, cauliflower was developed sometime after broccoli was established, presumably after someone thought, "You know, this 'broccoli' business tastes like heaven, but I just wish it wasn't so vibrant.". .
Why Do So Many People Think Broccoli and Cauliflower Are the
For whatever reason, these two vegetables are often confused for one another, even though they are strikingly different in many ways, including color (yes, there is green cauliflower, but the white variety is by far the most common).Both broccoli and cauliflower belong to the family Brassicaceae, which also includes cabbage and Brussels sprouts.Have you ever noticed how you can look between stalks of broccoli, but cauliflower just looks like a solid mass?This is due to each of the vegetables’ distinct fluorescence, which is more loosely dispersed in broccoli and, as a result, makes it easier to discern between stalks. .
Brassica oleracea is a plant species that includes many common cultivars, such as cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, kale, Brussels sprouts, collard greens, Savoy cabbage, kohlrabi, and gai lan.In its uncultivated form, it is called wild cabbage and is native to coastal southern and western Europe.A hardy plant in its uncultivated form, its high tolerance for salt and lime, and its intolerance of competition from other plants, typically restrict its natural occurrence to limestone sea cliffs, like the chalk cliffs on both sides of the English Channel, and the windswept coast on the western side of the Isle of Wight.Genetic analysis of nine wild populations on the French Atlantic coast indicated their common feral origin, deriving from domesticated plants escaped from fields and gardens.Wild B. oleracea is a tall biennial plant that forms a stout rosette of large leaves in the first year.The leaves are fleshier and thicker than other Brassica species—an adaptation that helps it store water and nutrients in its difficult growing environment.Its specific epithet oleracea means "vegetable/herbal" in Latin and is a form of holeraceus (oleraceus).It is rich in essential nutrients including vitamin C.
It has been bred into a wide range of cultivars, including cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, brussels sprouts, collards, and kale, some of which are hardly recognizable as being members of the same genus, let alone species. The historical genus of Crucifera, meaning "cross-bearing" in reference to the four-petaled flowers, may be the only unifying feature beyond taste.Researchers believe it has been cultivated for several thousand years, but its history as a domesticated plant is not clear before Greek and Roman times, when it was a well-established garden vegetable.A diet rich in cruciferous vegetables (e.g., cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower) is linked to a reduced risk of several human cancers.According to the Triangle of U theory, B. oleracea is very closely related to five other species of the genus Brassica.Through artificial selection for various phenotype traits, the emergence of variations of the plant with drastic differences in looks took only a few thousand years.Preference led to further artificial selection of kale plants with more tightly bunched leaves, or terminal bud.Phenotype selection preferences in Germany resulted in a new variation from the kale cultivar.By selecting for fatter stems, the variant plant known as kohlrabi emerged around the first century AD.European preference emerged for eating immature buds, selection for inflorescence.Early records in 15th century AD, indicate that early cauliflower and broccoli heading types were found throughout southern Italy and Sicily, although these types may not have been resolved into distinct cultivars until about 100 years later.Further selection in Belgium in lateral bud led to Brussels sprouts in the 18th century.The Lumbee tribe of North Carolina has traditionally used the leaves of B.
oleracea in medicine that they believed to have cleansing qualities, as well as a mild laxative, an anti-inflammatory, and treatment for glaucoma and pneumonia.Vegetables in the brassica family, such as collard greens, kale, broccoli, cabbage, and Brussels sprouts, contain glucosinolates and isothiocyanates, which resemble PROP, and therefore much of the perceived "bitterness" of these vegetables is mediated through TAS2R38.Bitter taste receptors in the TS2R family are also found in gut mucosal and pancreatic cells in humans and rodents.Three variants in the TAS2R38 gene – rs713598, rs1726866, and rs10246939 – are in high linkage disequilibrium in most populations and result in amino acid coding changes that lead to a range of bitter taste perception phenotypes.The PAV haplotype is dominant; therefore, individuals with at least one copy of the PAV allele perceive molecules in vegetables that resemble PROP as tasting bitter, and consequently may develop an aversion to bitter vegetables. .
How to Use Broccoli or Cauliflower Stems and Leaves
I’ve seen eaters in the farmers’ market toss out nearly half of their purchase before they even walk away from the seller.It happens because a lot of eaters simply don’t realize they are tossing perfectly edible — and flavorful — parts of their produce.Some eaters (including this one) actually prefer the stalks and leaves of broccoli and cauliflower plants to the more commonly eaten head.The stalks of these plants have a delicate flavor and texture, like a cross between broccoli or cauliflower and a water chestnut.To prep the stalks, you need to remove the fibrous outer layer that surrounds the central “marrow.” You can use a vegetable peeler to slice it off like a carrot.It’s quite sad to drive past a recently harvested field and see piles of broccoli and cauliflower leaves left behind to rot.Broccoli and cauliflower leaves are starting to pop up in grocery stores, bundled and right at home in the leafy greens section of the produce aisle.If you are shopping in the farmers’ market, you might spot heads of broccoli and cauliflower with their leaves intact.Or you can use the “O” method in which you pinch your thumb and pointer together, leaving a small circle of space between them and drag the leaf swiftly through to strip out the rib.You can eat the ribs if you finely chop them and give them a head start in the cooking process to allow them a chance to soften before adding the rest of the leaf.The leaves cook down to a soft, silky texture and the rib retains a little bit more tooth, about the same as a braised leek.If you want to impress and amaze your family and friends — and reduce food waste — whip up a batch of broccoli stem slaw (below).Adding cauliflower or broccoli florets to your baked mac and cheese is an easy way to lighten up the dish and get an extra serving of vegetables in your meal.Peel, cut them into 1/2 inch wide batons and submerge them in a hot brine bath of vinegar seasoned with a little salt and sugar and any spices that appeal to you.A head is grated on the wide holes of a box grater or chopped finely in a food processor.The resulting pebble-like pieces are used as a substitute for the grain (actually, rice is a grass, but that’s another article) or in a variety of other applications.Sauté them over medium heat with a little garlic or onion and add a splash of something tasty such as stock, wine, cider or vinegar and simmer partially covered until tender.Give them a quick blanch in salted boiling water to make them pliable and load them up just as you would a cabbage leaf.Cut the stemmed leaves into chiffonade and massage with a bit of dressing to soften them.The tender stalks add just enough crunch and their delicate flavor really lets the Asian dressing shine.If you have extra veg on hand — some radishes, daikon, cabbage, peppers — you can prep them in the same manner and throw them in as well. .
Broccoli & Cauliflower: Planting and Growing Tips
If you want vegetables that are loaded with vitamins and nutrients as well as delicious flavors and beautiful, eye-catching colors , look no further than our numerous varieties of broccoli and cauliflower .These really are “super-veggies”, packing a healthy punch in every scrumptious bite, offering heavy yields so you'll have plenty of fresh produce for every meal, and proving hardy and versatile enough to satisfy everyone.All broccoli and cauliflower are packed with vitamins and nutrients, so when choosing what varieties to grow, you'll base your decision mostly on size and color.Since cauliflower is more sensitive to cold than its cabbage-family relatives, you need to start it early enough that it has a chance to mature before the heat of the summer.Make sure the plants receive plenty of lightfluorescent light for around 14 to 16 hours a day is also ideal for the fastest growth.Site them in full sun in a rich, moist, well-drained soil, spacing the young plants 18 to 24 inches apart in rows that are 2½ to 3 feet apart.If your seedlings have been held too long or mistreated in some way before planting, they can create“buttons”, or small heads, that tend to flower prematurely.Climatic elements such as extreme cold and drought can cause your plants to halt their full growth and form only “buttons”.A starter fertilizer applied when you transplant your seedlings will get your broccoli and cauliflower off to a good start, but it will not compensate for all the possible problems just mentioned.Cauliflowerthe heads (curds) develop quickly under proper conditions, typically growing to 6 to 8 inches within 7 to 12 days after branching begins.Put it in a loose or perforated plastic bad, being sure not to store it if it's wetwet broccoli will quickly become limp and can get moldy.Put it in a loose or perforated plastic bad, being sure not to store it if it's wetwet broccoli will quickly become limp and can get moldy. .
Broccoli vs Cauliflower
In this article, we will talk about those similarities, as well as their differences, mainly focusing on health and nutrition.Broccoli and cauliflower are closely related to cabbage, kale, and Brussel sprouts.Broccoli is a biennial plant and is considered to be a cool-season crop, meaning it prefers temperatures between 18 to 24°C (64 to 75°F).Both broccoli and cauliflower have dozens of varieties and can appear in many colors, including white, green, purple, orange, and yellow.The predominant essential amino acid found in broccoli is tryptophan, while in cauliflower, it is lysine.Lysine is the only essential amino acid that cauliflower is richer in compared to broccoli.Broccoli is higher in carbohydrates as well due to a larger amount of dietary fiber.The sugars found in cauliflower are glucose and fructose, while broccoli also contains maltose, lactose, and sucrose.It is richer in calcium, iron, zinc, phosphorus, magnesium, copper, and potassium.The "coverage" chart below show how much of the daily needs can be covered by 300 grams of the food Broccoli 7 : 1 Cauliflower Contains more Calcium +113.6% Contains more Iron +73.8% Contains more Magnesium +40% Contains more Phosphorus +50% Contains more Zinc +51.9% Contains more Copper +25.6% Equal in Potassium - 299 Equal in Sodium - 30 Broccoli Calcium Iron Magnesium Phosphorus Potassium Sodium Zinc Copper 15% 28% 15% 29% 28% 5% 12% 17% Cauliflower Calcium Iron Magnesium Phosphorus Potassium Sodium Zinc Copper 7% 16% 11% 19% 27% 4% 8% 14% Contains more Calcium +113.6% Contains more Iron +73.8% Contains more Magnesium +40% Contains more Phosphorus +50% Contains more Zinc +51.9% Contains more Copper +25.6% Equal in Potassium - 299 Equal in Sodium - 30.Exact glycemic index values have not been calculated yet for these vegetables due to their low carbohydrate contents.PRAL shows the capacity of a certain food to produce acid or base compounds inside the body.Broccoli and cauliflower, like all cruciferous vegetables, are great choices to incorporate into weight-loss diets.Cauliflower fits better in low-calorie, low-fat, low-carb diets; however, broccoli is richer in many essential vitamins and minerals.Studies have confirmed that increased vegetable consumption has benefits for preventing long-term weight gain and providing further food-specific guidance for the prevention of obesity, a primary risk factor for type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, cancers, and many other health conditions (4).Like other cruciferous vegetables, cauliflower and broccoli have been proven to possess many benefits for human health.Cruciferous vegetables, such as broccoli and cauliflower, have been studied to promote cardiovascular health and overall longevity (5).However, consumption of cruciferous vegetables has not been substantially associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes (6).Moreover, one study has found an association between cruciferous vegetable intake and a moderately higher risk of type 2 diabetes in US adults due to a compound called glucosinolate (7).In contrast, another research has concluded that a higher intake of cruciferous vegetables or their fiber is associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes (8).Many studies have found inverse associations between cruciferous vegetable intake and risk of bladder, breast, colorectal, endometrial, gastric, lung, ovarian, pancreatic, prostate, and renal cancers (9).Cruciferous vegetables are completely safe for human consumption as long as they are consumed in moderate amounts and grown in the correct conditions (10). .
These 6 Common Vegetables Are Actually All The Same Plant
Many common vegetables that many people buy and eat on a regular basis are actually all derived from this plant, and are considered the same species."The wild plant is a weedy little herb that prefers to grow on limestone outcroppings all around the coastal Mediterranean region," Jeanne Osnas, a researcher at Purdue University who blogs as "The Botanist in the Kitchen," writes of Brassica oleracea."It is a biennial plant that uses food reserves stored over the winter in its rosette of leaves to produce a spike of a few yellow flowers at the end of its second summer before dying.Kale and collard greens, which are part of the same subspecies, were created by making the ancestor plant's leaves bigger, and were domesticated in Europe sometime before 300 BCE. .