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[Hypotensive effect of long-acting garlic tablets allicor (a double-blind placebo-controlled trial)].Andrianova, I. V., Sobenin, I.[Effect of long-acting garlic tablets "allicor" on the incidence of acute respiratory viral infections in children].Chin Med J (Engl.).Arch Intern Med 1998;158:1189-94.Can garlic reduce levels of serum lipids?A controlled clinical study.Effect of a combined supplementation of fish oil (MEGA-3) with garlic pearls on the serum lipid profile, blood pressure and body mass index of hypercholesterolemic subjects.Contact Dermatitis 1996;35:157-62.An unusual garlic burn occurring on an unexpected area.BMJ Case Rep 2014.Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1993;45:333-6.Kiesewetter H, Jung F, Jung EM, et al.Clin Investig 1993;71:383-6.Int J cancer.Meta-analysis: Does garlic intake reduce risk of gastric cancer?Nutr Cancer.The antiatherosclerotic effect of Allium sativum.Effect of garlic intake on inflammatory mediators: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.The potential application of Allium sativum (garlic) for the treatment of bladder cancer.Urol Clin North Am 2000;27:157-62.Lau BS, Lam F, Wang-Cheng R. Effect of an odor-modified garlic preparation on blood lipids.Nutr Res 1987;7:139-49.Randomized comparative study with terbinafine.Contact dermatitis due to topical treatment with garlic in Hong Kong.Contact Dermatitis 1991;24:193-6.Effects of a dried garlic preparation on fibrinolysis and platelet aggregation in healthy subjects.Li WQ, Zhang JY, Ma JL, et al.Effects of Helicobacter pylori treatment and vitamin and garlic supplementation on gastric cancer incidence and mortality: follow-up of a randomized intervention trial.J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2013;10(1):22.Luley C, Lehmann-Leo W, Moller B, et al.Ma S, Yin J. Anaphylaxis induced by ingestion of raw garlic.Macan H, Uykimpang R, Alconcel M, et al.Aged garlic extract may be safe for patients on warfarin therapy.J Nutr 2006;136(3 Suppl):793S-795S.Treatment of hyperlipidaemia with garlic-powder tablets.Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2013;111(1):64-5.Effects of garlic (Allium sativum L.) supplementation on cytochrome P450 2D6 and 3A4 activity in healthy volunteers.Clin Pharmacol Ther 2003;74:170-7..
View abstract.Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 1998;152:1089-94. .
Garlic: Proven health benefits and uses
According to experts at Kew Gardens, England’s royal botanical center of excellence, the people of ancient India valued the therapeutic properties of garlic and also thought it to be an aphrodisiac.The original Olympic athletes in Ancient Greece were given garlic – possibly the earliest example of “performance enhancing” agents used in sports.A study published in the journal Food and Chemical Toxicology warned that short-term heating reduces the anti-inflammatory effects of fresh raw garlic extracts.Co-author, Ray Swapan, Ph.D., said “This research highlights the great promise of plant-originated compounds as natural medicine for controlling the malignant growth of human brain tumor cells.Women whose diets were rich in allium vegetables had lower levels of osteoarthritis , a team at King’s College London and the University of East Anglia, both in England, reported in the journal BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders.The study authors said their findings not only highlighted the possible impact of diet on osteoarthritis outcomes but also demonstrated the potential for using compounds that exist in garlic to develop treatments for the condition.The long-term study, involving more than 1,000 healthy female twins, found that those whose dietary habits included plenty of fruit and vegetables, “particularly alliums such as garlic,” had fewer signs of early osteoarthritis in the hip joint.Diallyl sulfide, a compound in garlic, was 100 times more effective than two popular antibiotics in fighting the Campylobacter bacterium, according to a study published in the Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy.Senior author, Dr. Xiaonan Lu, from Washington State University, said, “This work is very exciting to me because it shows that this compound has the potential to reduce disease-causing bacteria in the environment and in our food supply.”.Because of this, the scientists decided to focus on diallyl trisulfide, a garlic oil component, as a safer way to deliver the benefits of hydrogen sulfide to the heart.In another study, published in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, scientists found that garlic oil may help protect diabetes patients from cardiomyopathy.The study authors wrote, “In conclusion, garlic oil possesses significant potential for protecting hearts from diabetes-induced cardiomyopathy.”.Doctors at the Department of Urology, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing, China, carried out a study evaluating the relationship between Allium vegetable consumption and prostate cancer risk.Scientists at the Institute of Toxicology, School of Public Health, Shandong University, China, wanted to determine whether diallyl disulfide (DADS), a garlic-derived organosulfur compound, might have protective effects against ethanol-induced oxidative stress.Scientists at the Division of Epidemiology, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, studied what impact foods might have on antimicrobial infections and preterm delivery risk.Ronny Myhre and colleagues concentrated on the effects of Alliums and dried fruits, because a literature search had identified these two foods as showing the greatest promise for reducing preterm delivery risk.The team investigated the intake of dried fruit and Alliums among 18,888 women in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort, of whom 5 percent (950) underwent spontaneous PTD (preterm delivery).The study authors concluded, “Intake of food with antimicrobial and prebiotic compounds may be of importance to reduce the risk of spontaneous PTD. .
Species of plant.Garlic Allium sativum, known as garlic, from William Woodville, Medical Botany, 1793.Allium ophioscorodon Link.Garlic (Allium sativum) is a species of bulbous flowering plant in the genus Allium. It was known to ancient Egyptians and has been used as both a food flavoring and a traditional medicine. China produces 76% of the world's supply of garlic.Allium sativum is a perennial flowering plant growing from a bulb.Origin and major types [ edit ]. Genetically and morphologically, garlic is most similar to the wild species Allium longicuspis, which grows in central and southwestern Asia. However, because Allium longicuspis is also mostly sterile, it is doubtful that it is the ancestor of Allium sativum. Other candidates that have been suggested include Allium tuncelianum, Allium macrochaetum, and Allium truncatum, all of which are native to the Middle East.Allium sativum grows in the wild in areas where it has become naturalized.The "wild garlic", "crow garlic", and "field garlic" of Britain are members of the species Allium ursinum, Allium vineale, and Allium oleraceum, respectively.Bulbs.Subspecies and varieties [ edit ].It is sometimes considered to be a separate species, Allium ophioscorodon G.Don.Cultivation [ edit ].When selecting garlic for planting, it is important to pick large bulbs from which to separate cloves.Hardneck garlic is generally grown in cooler climates and produces relatively large cloves, whereas softneck garlic is generally grown closer to the equator and produces small, tightly packed cloves.The scapes can be eaten raw or cooked.Diseases [ edit ]. The larvae of the leek moth attack garlic by mining into the leaves or bulbs.Production [ edit ]. The resultant compounds are responsible for the sharp or hot taste and strong smell of garlic.A large number of sulfur compounds contribute to the smell and taste of garlic.Allicin has been found to be the compound most responsible for the "hot" sensation of raw garlic.Abundant sulfur compounds in garlic are also responsible for turning garlic green or blue during pickling and cooking. Upon cutting, similar to a color change in onion caused by reactions of amino acids with sulfur compounds, garlic can turn green.History [ edit ].Folk medicine [ edit ].A garlic bulb.Garlic is widely used around the world for its pungent flavor as a seasoning or condiment.The garlic plant's bulb is the most commonly used part of the plant.With the exception of the single clove types, garlic bulbs are normally divided into numerous fleshy sections called cloves.Garlic cloves are used for consumption (raw or cooked) or for medicinal purposes. The distinctive aroma is mainly due to organosulfur compounds including allicin present in fresh garlic cloves and ajoene which forms when they are crushed or chopped.They are milder in flavor than the bulbs, and are most often consumed while immature and still tender.Additionally, the immature flower stalks (scapes) of the hardneck and elephant types are sometimes marketed for uses similar to asparagus in stir-fries.Inedible or rarely eaten parts of the garlic plant include the "skin" covering each clove and root cluster.An alternative is to cut the top off the bulb, coat the cloves by dribbling olive oil (or other oil-based seasoning) over them, and roast them in an oven. Garlic leaves are a popular vegetable in many parts of Asia.Oils can be flavored with garlic cloves.These infused oils are used to season all categories of vegetables, meats, breads, and pasta.Garlic is essential in Middle Eastern and Arabic cooking, with its presence in many food items.In Levantine countries such as Jordan and Lebanon, garlic is traditionally crushed together with olive oil, and occasionally salt, to create a Middle Eastern garlic sauce called Toum (تُوم; meaning "garlic" in Arabic).Garlic, oil, and a chunky base produce skordalia.Blending garlic, almond, oil, and soaked bread produces ajoblanco.Tzatziki, yogurt mixed with garlic and salt, is a common sauce in Eastern Mediterranean cuisines.C are inhibited entirely, in refrigerated cloves one may only see the white mycellium during early stages.Medical research [ edit ].Cancer [ edit ]. Further meta-analyses found similar results on the incidence of stomach cancer by consuming allium vegetables including garlic. A 2014 meta-analysis of observational epidemiological studies found that garlic consumption was associated with a lower risk of stomach cancer in Korean people.A 2016 meta-analysis found no effect of garlic on colorectal cancer. A 2014 meta-analysis found garlic supplements or allium vegetables to have no effect on colorectal cancers.Common cold [ edit ].AMS is a volatile liquid which is absorbed into the blood during the metabolism of garlic-derived sulfur compounds; from the blood it travels to the lungs (and from there to the mouth, causing bad breath; see garlic breath) and skin, where it is exuded through skin pores.The green, dry "folds" in the center of the garlic clove are especially pungent.The sulfur compound allicin, produced by crushing or chewing fresh garlic, produces other sulfur compounds: ajoene, allyl polysulfides, and vinyldithiins.Some people suffer from allergies to garlic and other species of Allium.In Islam, it is recommended not to eat raw garlic prior to going to the mosque.Garlic plant."The Onion Family: Onions, Garlic, Leeks". .
Garlic (Garlic Oil)
Garlic is an herb that’s been used medicinally, in cooking, and as a dietary supplement.Its traditional uses originated thousands of years ago.The most studied active ingredient and antioxidant in garlic is called allicin. .
Effect of garlic on blood pressure: A systematic review and meta
Mean blood pressure at start of intervention varied markedly, with four studies reporting mean SBP in the hypertensive range (≥140 mm Hg) and three studies reporting mean DBP in the hypertensive range ≥90 mm Hg) before treatment.Meta-analysis of ten studies of the effect of garlic on SBP showed a significant difference between garlic and control groups, with garlic having a greater effect in reducing SBP than placebo by 4.56 [95% CI (confidence interval), -7.36, -1.77] mm Hg compared with placebo (p < 0.001) (Figure 2a).Subgroup analysis of the remaining studies with mean SBP in the normotensive range (<140 mm Hg) at start of intervention showed no significant difference between the garlic and placebo groups (Figure 3b).Figure 3 Subgroup meta-analysis on the effect of garlic on systolic blood pressure of hypertensive subjects (≥140 mm Hg at start of intervention) (A) or 'normotensive' subjects (<140 mm Hg at start of intervention) (B); on diastolic blood pressure of hypertensive subjects (≥90 mm Hg) (C) or normotensive subjects (<90 mm Hg) (D).Meta-analysis of eleven studies of the effect of garlic on DBP did not show a significant difference between garlic and placebo groups (-2.44 [95% CI, -4.97, 0.09] mm Hg, p = 0.06) (Figure 2b).However, subgroup analysis of studies with mean DBP in the hypertensive range at the start of treatment revealed a significant difference between garlic and control groups.Figure 4 Funnel plots of studies included in meta-analysis on the effect of garlic on systolic blood pressure (A) and diastolic blood pressure (B).Blood pressure changes over time were plotted by blood pressure at start of treatment using data from 20 out of the 25 studies identified in our systematic review, which included placebo and non-placebo controlled trials, using garlic-only preparations, and reporting mean or median SBP and/or DBP (studies in meta-analysis [11–21]; as well as garlic-only intervention arms included in systematic review [24–28, 32, 33, 35, 53]). .
The plant is native to central Asia but grows wild in Italy and southern France and is a classic ingredient in many national cuisines.Depending on the variety, the long leaves typically arise from a short hard stem above the bulb or emerge from a softer pseudostem made up of overlapping leaf sheaths. .
Medical Definition of Garlic
Garlic: A perennial herb of the lily family cultivated for its pungent, edible bulbs.Effects on other drugs has not been well studied. .
Is Garlic a Vegetable?
Strictly speaking, a vegetable is any edible part of an herbaceous plant, such as the roots, leaves, stems, and bulbs.Although it was previously believed that only raw garlic had health benefits, studies now show that cooked and commercially prepared products can be just as beneficial ( 3 ).Summary Garlic is used primarily as an herb or spice, often added to dishes in small amounts to heighten flavor rather than eaten on its own.This potent vegetable packs a variety of sulfur compounds, including allicin, which accounts for most of its medicinal properties ( 5 ).Research shows that just 1–2 cloves (4 grams) provide substantial health benefits, including ( 6, 7): reduced cholesterol.enhanced immune function Summary Garlic is more potent than most other vegetables and offers numerous benefits, even when eaten in small amounts. .
Garlic Mustard: Invasive, Destructive, Edible
Garlic mustard, originally from Europe and Asia, has become a very troublesome invasive plant across the Northeast, Midwest and Northwest of the United States. .