What's going on with these bulbs?Are they any different from the white bulbs we're used to seeing?White Garlic.It comes from a variety called softneck garlic, meaning the stalk doesn't grow through the center of the bulb.Purple Garlic.Purple garlic cloves are "juicier" and have a milder flavor than white garlic when fresh.Purple garlic can be used just like white garlic. .
Choosing a Good Head of Garlic
The cloves of hardneck garlic have a brownish skin with varying amounts of purple, depending on the variety.Hardneck garlic grows until the ground freezes and then rests until the mild weather returns.Softneck garlic grows year-round in climates where the winters are mild, such as southern California, Florida, and the southeastern U.S., as well as Israel, Italy, and parts of Asia.In the harsher climates where hardneck garlic grows best, planting is usually done in late September or October.At harvest, garlic is hung in a cool, dry, well-ventilated place to cure for three to five weeks before going to market.Green shoots in a bulb are a sign of internal growth in the clove; it’s an indication of old garlic.Varieties vary in size, and many people find that a smaller bulb of garlic has more flavor than a larger one.If you buy a large amount of garlic, hang it in a mesh sack in your basement or garage—as long as it’s cool and dry there. .
How to Tell if Garlic is Bad
The good news is, garlic can last quite a while at room temperature in a dark place.Over time your garlic can start to grow a green sprout inside.It is perfectly fine to east the rest of the clove as long as there are no signs of brown spots on it.Store fresh garlic in a dark, dry place at room temperature.Storing garlic in the fridge will cause it to spoil faster and grow mold.Minced garlic should be stored in a tightly sealed container in the refrigerator.When buying garlic at the store you want to look for loosely sold bulbs so that you can choose them individually and look them over well.Fresh garlic should be plump and tight with taunt white papery skin that is flaking a little.You want to be sure to store your garlic bulbs in a dry dark space at room temperature.If you add a little olive oil to the minced garlic it will gain you another day or so of freshness.This purple color is on the outer skin and not the actual cloves of the garlic.If you are making your own garlic paste then it is important to store it correctly in the refrigerator.The paste is going to have additives like oil and salt so you will get a different taste then fresh garlic.If you have store bought minced garlic it will have a shelf life and you need to follow the date that the give you on a jar. .
How to Plant and Grow Garlic
And as a natural pest and fungus deterrent, it makes a powerful companion to a variety of plants, from herbs and veggies to flowers and fruit trees.Revered throughout antiquity for its cultural significance and healing potential, entire books and festivals have been dedicated solely to growing this vegetable – and many more to eating it!A bulbous perennial, garlic is a species in the genus Allium, with close cousins including chives, leeks, onions, and shallots.It grows 18-24 inches tall, and the head, or bulb, is a storage organ used for fuel reserves to prepare for adverse and wintery conditions.The flat, grass-like leaves and segmented bulbs are highly aromatic, and typically grown as an annual in herb and vegetable gardens.If left to grow, the umbels – or flower heads – open to reveal showy, star shaped blooms in shades of pink and white.While you can grow from these seeds, propagation from mature cloves is the preferred method, having the best success rate and usually resulting in larger bulbs.While growth is simple and straightforward, garlic’s signature taste is bold and complex – one of the reasons why it’s beloved in almost every global cuisine.It’s harder to braid hardnecks, but you get a different bonus from this subspecies: the delicious scapes, or flower stems and buds, a culinary darling that we’ll get to later!Some studies, like this review from the Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine published in 2014, show that allicin exhibits powerful antibiotic and antimicrobial effects, such as killing bacteria, viruses, and fungi.This means you won’t find these fantastic antimicrobial properties in dried powder, or even in cooked cloves from your own garden.An extensive, multicultural tale of epic proportions, in its wild form, it was first used as a food source by our foraging ancestors.Domesticated and cultivated in the Middle East some 7,000 years ago, the ancient Greeks, Romans, Egyptians, Chinese, Indians, and numerous others embraced it as an irreplaceable condiment, food, and even medicine.The first recorded reference circa 1550 BC is found in the “Codex Ebers,” a medical text used by priests in ancient Egypt.In India, it was an important and powerful Ayurvedic remedy – Ayurveda being a healing tradition that is still practiced today, utilizing both food and herbs as medicine.For more information on the fascinating history of garlic, check out journalist Michael Castleman’s “The New Healing Herbs: The Essential Guide to More than 125 of Nature’s Most Potent Herbal Remedies,” available on Amazon.Annual growth from cloves, the individual bulb pieces, is the preferred propagation method of both commercial growers and the home gardener.Choose large, firm bulbs free from brown patches, soft spots, or shriveling, and with the exterior paper tunic still intact.One of the first crops to emerge in spring, garlic thrives in well-draining, fertile soil with a loamy texture, and requires full sun to produce the biggest bulbs.The ideal conditions to stimulate bulb formation require exposure to 40-50°F temperatures for a period of 6-12 weeks over the winter months.Vernalization occurs naturally in regions with cold winters, but in milder areas, several weeks of storage in the produce drawer of your refrigerator will provide the required temperatures and humidity levels.Fall sowing is optimal in September and October in most regions, with the end of November being a typical cut-off date for planting.Spring sowing is not recommended because bulb formation halts in hot temperatures, and garlic requires a long growth period.This late growing period gives them a nice head start, with explosive growth triggered by warm spring temperatures.Bulbs require only moderate to average water levels, and benefit from a thick, 6-inch layer of dry mulch such as clean straw, evergreen boughs, or fern fronds added when you plant them.In summer, adding a layer of mulch helps to retain moisture, maintains cool soil temperatures, and keeps weeds down.Garlic tends to struggle in tropical and sub-tropical growing zones, due to excessive humidity, moisture, and rainfall.In Zone 8 and higher, garlic can be grown year-round – conditions here are ideal for softneck varieties that require little or no winter covering.One of the most effective companion crops for the garden, garlic’s high sulfur signature is a natural pest and fungus repellent.A soil borne fungus, avoid planting wounded or damaged cloves, and rotate allium crops annually to reduce the chance of infection.This fungal infection is the result of poor storage of seed stock, and planting wounded or bruised cloves.This disease is exhibited by fluffy, fuzzy fungal growth on the stem and bulb of plants that quickly causes them to rot and die.Curing is the term for the thorough drying required for flavors to develop fully, and it helps to ensure a long storage life, free from discoloration and rot.Or, you can clip them off after harvest – just make sure you leave 7 or more inches of stalk attached to the bulb, which will help it to cure by drawing moisture away from the cloves.If you clipped your garlic instead, store it in loose piles in containers that permit airflow – preferably in breathable crates, boxes, or shelves.You can then cut off any leftover plant material and store as you like – in a dry basket in a cool, dark cupboard, or in a paper bag in the fridge.Being careful to keep them intact and without breaking them up into cloves, set aside the largest heads in a dark and dry place for use as seed next year.Crush, slice, mince, chop, or throw whole cloves into your desired dish for a punch of added flavor.For the ultimate French fry or veggie dip, try Foodal’s homemade garlic aioli – it’s full of delicious flavor.Raw cloves can have an overwhelming flavor and heat, and consuming them might cause indigestion or stomach cramps in some individuals, so be cautious.Some studies (like this one) have found, however, that a cold-water press of the cloves, such as in a warm or cold tea, can retain some allicin, and may work as a mild antimicrobial tisane.According to this study, consuming garlic regularly as a culinary herb provides allicin and other beneficial phytonutrients that may boost health and immunity.The bulbs also contain another potent compound called ajoene, with some studies pointing to its anti-tumor and diabetes management possibilities.Among herbalists and alternative medicine practitioners, there is a lengthy tradition behind garlic’s use as a topical antiseptic, cold and flu fighter, digestive healer, and tonic – and it’s still employed by some naturopaths for combating various ailments, even stomach ulcers and parasites.With your own bulbs to enjoy straight from your yard, you can feel the amazing benefits, satisfaction, and ownership of having nurtured your very own plants – and oftentimes, growing your own makes for even tastier and healthier food! .
11 Proven Health Benefits of Garlic
Garlic grows in many parts of the world and is a popular ingredient in cooking due to its strong smell and delicious taste.Its use was well documented by many major civilizations, including the Egyptians, Babylonians, Greeks, Romans and Chinese ( 2 ).Scientists now know that most of its health benefits are caused by sulfur compounds formed when a garlic clove is chopped, crushed or chewed.However, allicin is an unstable compound that is only briefly present in fresh garlic after it’s been cut or crushed ( 3 ).Other compounds that may play a role in garlic’s health benefits include diallyl disulfide and s-allyl cysteine ( 4 ).One clove (3 grams) of raw garlic contains ( 5 ): Manganese: 2% of the Daily Value (DV).0.06 grams Decent amounts of calcium, copper, potassium, phosphorus, iron.One large, 12-week study found that a daily garlic supplement reduced the number of colds by 63% compared to a placebo ( 6 ).Despite the lack of strong evidence, adding garlic to your diet may be worth trying if you often get colds.The Active Compounds in Garlic Can Reduce Blood Pressure Cardiovascular diseases like heart attacks and strokes are the world’s biggest killers.In one study, 600–1,500 mg of aged garlic extract was just as effective as the drug Atenolol at reducing blood pressure over a 24-week period ( 12 ).Summary High doses of garlic appear to improve blood.Garlic Contains Antioxidants That May Help Prevent Alzheimer’s Disease and Dementia Oxidative damage from free radicals contributes to the aging process.Garlic contains antioxidants that support the body’s protective mechanisms against oxidative damage ( 19 ).But given the beneficial effects on important risk factors like blood pressure, it makes sense that garlic could help you live longer.The fact that it can fight infectious disease is also an important factor, because these are common causes of death, especially in the elderly or people with dysfunctional immune systems.It was traditionally used in ancient cultures to reduce fatigue and enhance the work capacity of laborers.Eating Garlic May Help Detoxify Heavy Metals in the Body At high doses, the sulfur compounds in garlic have been shown to protect against organ damage from heavy metal toxicity.It also reduced many clinical signs of toxicity, including headaches and blood pressure ( 25 ).However, rodent studies have shown that it can minimize bone loss by increasing estrogen in females ( 26 , 27 , 28 , 29 ).One study in menopausal women found that a daily dose of dry garlic extract (equal to 2 grams of raw garlic) significantly decreased a marker of estrogen deficiency ( 30 ).health by increasing estrogen levels in females, but more human studies are.Garlic Is Easy to Include in Your Diet and Tastes Absolutely Delicious The last one is not a health benefit, but is still important.If you have a bleeding disorder or are taking blood-thinning medications, talk to your doctor before increasing your garlic intake. .
Garlic, Allium sativum – Wisconsin Horticulture
This perennial plant, most often grown as an annual, produces edible bulbs composed of a number of cloves.The rugged foothills of these various mountain ranges of the Himalayas are probably the true birthplace of garlic, although it was known in all early civilized cultures, including the Babylonians, Egyptians, Romans and Chinese.Garlic’s volatile oil contains many sulfur-containing compounds – although not as much of the sulfuric acid that makes your eyes water as onions have – that are responsible for the strong odor, as well as for its healthful benefits.Wild garlic came from areas with a harsh continental climate of hot, dry summers with intense sunlight and long cold winters.It would mature in late spring, then stay dormant until the cooler, moister fall and then begin another cycle of root growth.When it was moved to the Mediterranean and continental Europe, garlic had to adapt to year-round rain, cooler summers and/or milder, wetter winters.Although these bulbils can be planted, the bulbs they form will be very small, requiring two or three years to reach usable size.Hardneck types typically have four to 12 cloves in a single circle surrounding the stiff stalk (which can’t be braided) and generally do not store well.Because they begin root growth in the early fall, they generally have a limited season of 3 to 4 months before quality deteriorates in storage.They are taller than Rocamboles, with pale to deep green leaves and looping or irregularly coiled scapes.The bulbs are a satiny white with only 4-6 large cloves that are more difficult to peel than the Rocamboles (but easier than softnecks).The leaves on the plant grow at wider angles to the stem than Rocambole types do and the scapes often make perfect 270 degree curls.Softneck types generally don’t form a scape and therefore the soft necks can be braided.Silverskin (S) garlics often have pale green leaves, rarely make a flower stalk, and produce white or pink blushed bulbs with either 8-12 or 18-24 cloves, depending on type.The flavor is much milder than true garlic but a sharp or bitter taste sometimes develops in cold climates.‘Chesnock Red’ (PS) – a good performer that holds its shape and retains flavor after it is cooked.‘Chesnock Red’ (PS) – a good performer that holds its shape and retains flavor after it is cooked.‘Georgian Crystal’ (P) – large clean white bulbs with 4-7 cloves and mild but robust flavor.‘Italian Late’ (A) – tight, light colored wrappers surround fat outer cloves with rich garlic flavor.‘Music’ (P) – large bulbs with pink skin similar to ‘German White’ and robust flavor.‘Spanish Roja’ (R) – large cloves peel easily and have more subtle flavor than many other Rocambole varieties and is quite good eaten raw.Garlic left in the ground will start to develop new roots from each of the cloves during late summer.Mulching with 3-4” clean straw after planting will help minimize soil temperature fluctuations that can damage the developing roots and shoots.Remove the mulch in the spring after the threat of hard freezes has passed; it can be replaced after the shoots are about 6” tall to help control weeds for the remainder of the growing season.Garlic is a moderate to heavy feeder, so apply a nitrogen fertilizer at planting and again when the shoots are 4-6” tall.Garlic has a relatively shallow root system and is sensitive to moisture stress, especially during bulbing (about the end of May to mid July).Control weeds by shallow cultivation or mulching, as garlic is a poor competitor and bulb size will be reduced.Any pesticide and weed seed-free material of moderate texture, such as fresh grass, chopped straw or pine needles, can be used.Be cautious with wet leaves, fine sawdust or uncomposted manures that may actually form a barrier to the soil below.However, there is some circumstantial evidence that leaving the scape on until it turns woody may improve storage life.Unlike onions, garlic doesn’t signal maturity by breakdown of the neck tissue.If you intend to use the garlic for seed to replant in your garden, store at room temperature until planting.Garlic is a practically ubiquitous culinary herb used in a wide variety of cuisines throughout the world, especially French, Italian, and Chinese.Young garlic is harvested in early summer with immature bulbs and a stem that is usually too tough to eat. .
 It is native to Central Asia and northeastern Iran and has long been a common seasoning worldwide, with a history of several thousand years of human consumption and use.The leaf blade is flat, linear, solid, and approximately 1.25–2.5 cm (0.5–1.0 in) wide, with an acute apex.The plant may produce pink to purple flowers from July to September in the Northern Hemisphere. Genetically and morphologically, garlic is most similar to the wild species Allium longicuspis, which grows in central and southwestern Asia.There are at least 120 cultivars originating from Central Asia, making it the main center of garlic biodiversity.Garlic does well in loose, dry, well-drained soils in sunny locations, and is hardy throughout USDA climate zones 4–9.When selecting garlic for planting, it is important to pick large bulbs from which to separate cloves.Large cloves, along with proper spacing in the planting bed, will also increase bulb size.Hardneck garlic is generally grown in cooler climates and produces relatively large cloves, whereas softneck garlic is generally grown closer to the equator and produces small, tightly packed cloves. The California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA) conducts a certification program to assure freedom from nematode and white rot disease caused by Stromatinia cepivora, two pathogens that can both destroy a crop as well as remain in the soil indefinitely, once introduced.Botrytis neck and bulb rot is a disease of onion, garlic, leek and shallot.“ Initial symptoms usually begin at the neck, where affected tissue softens, becomes water-soaked, and turns brown.The phytochemicals responsible for the sharp flavor of garlic are produced when the plant's cells are damaged. The resultant compounds are responsible for the sharp or hot taste and strong smell of garlic. Although many humans enjoy the taste of garlic, these compounds are believed to have evolved as a defensive mechanism, deterring animals such as birds, insects, and worms from eating the plant.This chemical opens thermo-transient receptor potential channels that are responsible for the burning sense of heat in foods. Upon cutting, similar to a color change in onion caused by reactions of amino acids with sulfur compounds, garlic can turn green. It was consumed by ancient Greek and Roman soldiers, sailors, and rural classes (Virgil, Eclogues ii.Garlic was placed by the ancient Greeks on the piles of stones at crossroads, as a supper for Hecate (Theophrastus, Characters, The Superstitious Man).Garlic was rare in traditional English cuisine (though it is said to have been grown in England before 1548) but has been a common ingredient in Mediterranean Europe. Translations of the c. 1300 Assize of Weights and Measures, an English statute generally dated to the 13th century, indicate a passage as dealing with standardized units of garlic production, sale, and taxation — the hundred of 15 ropes of 15 heads each – but the Latin version of the text may refer to herring rather than garlic.Garlic has been used for traditional medicine in diverse cultures such as in Egypt, Japan, China, Rome, and Greece. In his Natural History, Pliny gave a list of conditions in which garlic was considered beneficial (N.H.
xx.Galen, writing in the second century, eulogized garlic as the "rustic's theriac" (cure-all) (see F. Adams' Paulus Aegineta, p.
99).Avicenna, in The Canon of Medicine (1025), recommended garlic for the treatment of arthritis, snake and insect bites, parasites, chronic cough, and as an antibiotic.[medical citation needed] Alexander Neckam, a writer of the 12th century (see Wright's edition of his works, p. 473, 1863), discussed it as a palliative for the heat of the sun in field labor.In the 17th century, Thomas Sydenham valued it as an application in confluent smallpox, and William Cullen's Materia Medica of 1789 found some dropsies cured by it alone. The distinctive aroma is mainly due to organosulfur compounds including allicin present in fresh garlic cloves and ajoene which forms when they are crushed or chopped.Green garlic is often chopped and stir-fried or cooked in soup or hot pot in Southeast Asian (i.e. Vietnamese, Thai, Myanmar, Lao, Cambodian, Singaporean), and Chinese cookery, and is very abundant and low-priced.Additionally, the immature flower stalks (scapes) of the hardneck and elephant types are sometimes marketed for uses similar to asparagus in stir-fries.Inedible or rarely eaten parts of the garlic plant include the "skin" covering each clove and root cluster. The root cluster attached to the basal plate of the bulb is the only part not typically considered palatable in any form.An alternative is to cut the top off the bulb, coat the cloves by dribbling olive oil (or other oil-based seasoning) over them, and roast them in an oven.In East and Southeast Asia, chili oil with garlic is a popular dipping sauce, especially for meat and seafood.Tuong ot toi Viet Nam (Vietnam chili garlic sauce) is a highly popular condiment and dip across North America and Asia.In some cuisines, the young bulbs are pickled for three to six weeks in a mixture of sugar, salt, and spices.Garlic is essential in Middle Eastern and Arabic cooking, with its presence in many food items.Tzatziki, yogurt mixed with garlic and salt, is a common sauce in Eastern Mediterranean cuisines.It is traditionally hung; softneck varieties are often braided in strands called plaits or grappes. Refrigeration does not assure the safety of garlic kept in oil, requiring use within one month to avoid bacterial spoilage. Infection may first appear as soft or water-soaked spots, followed by white patches (of mycelium) which turn blue or green with sporulation.As of 2015, clinical research found that consuming garlic produces only a small reduction in blood pressure (4 mmHg), and there is no clear long-term effect on hypertension, cardiovascular morbidity or mortality.A 2016 meta-analysis of case-control and cohort studies found a moderate inverse association between garlic intake and some cancers of the upper digestive tract. Another meta-analysis found decreased rates of stomach cancer associated with garlic intake, but cited confounding factors as limitations for interpreting these studies. Further meta-analyses found similar results on the incidence of stomach cancer by consuming allium vegetables including garlic. A 2014 meta-analysis of observational epidemiological studies found that garlic consumption was associated with a lower risk of stomach cancer in Korean people. A 2013 meta-analysis of epidemiological studies found garlic intake to be associated with decreased risk of prostate cancer.A 2014 review found insufficient evidence to determine the effects of garlic in preventing or treating the common cold. Other reviews concluded a similar absence of high-quality evidence for garlic having a significant effect on the common cold. An environmentally benign garlic-derived polysulfide product is approved for use in the European Union (under Annex 1 of 91/414) and the UK as a nematicide and insecticide, including for use for control of cabbage root fly and red mite in poultry.Garlic is known to cause bad breath (halitosis) and body odor, described as a pungent garlicky smell to sweat.Studies have shown sipping milk at the same time as consuming garlic can significantly neutralize bad breath. Symptoms can include irritable bowel, diarrhea, mouth and throat ulcerations, nausea, breathing difficulties, and, in rare cases, anaphylaxis. Garlic-sensitive people show positive tests to diallyl disulfide, allylpropyldisulfide, allylmercaptan, and allicin, all of which are present in garlic.People who suffer from garlic allergies are often sensitive to many other plants, including onions, chives, leeks, shallots, garden lilies, ginger, and bananas. Possible side effects include gastrointestinal discomfort, sweating, dizziness, allergic reactions, bleeding, and menstrual irregularities. Garlic may interact with warfarin, saquinavir, antihypertensives, calcium channel blockers, the quinolone family of antibiotics such as ciprofloxacin, and hypoglycemic drugs, as well as other medications.In Europe, many cultures have used garlic for protection or white magic, perhaps owing to its reputation in folk medicine. Central European folk beliefs considered garlic a powerful ward against demons, werewolves, and vampires.To ward off vampires, garlic could be worn, hung in windows, or rubbed on chimneys and keyholes.In celebration of Nowruz (Persian calendar New Year), garlic is one of the essential items in a Haft-sin ("seven things beginning with 'S'") table, a traditional New Year's display: the name for garlic in Persian is سیر (seer), which begins with "س" (sin, pronounced "seen") the Perso-Arabic letter corresponding to "S". When expressed per 100 grams, garlic contains several nutrients in rich amounts (20% or more of the DV), including vitamins B6 and C, and the dietary minerals manganese and phosphorus.Per 100 gram serving, garlic is also a moderate source (10–19% DV) of certain B vitamins, including thiamin and pantothenic acid, as well as the dietary minerals calcium, iron, and zinc (table).The composition of raw garlic is 59% water, 33% carbohydrates, 6% protein, 2% dietary fiber, and less than 1% fat.
How Long Does Garlic Last and How to Tell If It Has Gone Bad
You can extend the shelf life of peeled and cut garlic by covering them in oil or cooking them. .