DMTS, DETS, DATS and DPTS showed antibiotic activity against all bacteria in this study, resulting in clear inhibition zones, the size of which was dose-dependent (Fig.Figure 4 Plate inhibition zone assay showing the antimicrobial activity of different thiosulfinates against various bacteria and yeast.), Gram-positive bacteria (M. luteus) and yeast BY4742 cells.Therefore, considering antibacterial activity first, DMTS was most effective in this test system against P. syringae 4612 and least effective against P.

fluorescens whereas DATS was most effective against Micrococcus luteus and least effective against P. fluorescens (Fig.All the thiosulfinates proved very effective against yeast BY4742 cells and resulted in relatively large inhibition zones in comparison to those for bacteria.To investigate the antibiotic activity of DMTS, DETS, DATS, DPTS and DBTS via the gas phase, a 20 µL drop of 80 mM test solution was placed in the centre of a Petri-dish lid and the Petri-dish base, containing medium seeded with bacteria, was inverted above the lid as previously described17.Thus, there was no contact between the test solution and the agar itself except by diffusion through the air.With the exception of DBTS, which was presumably not sufficiently volatile to achieve inhibitory concentrations, all thiosulfinates produced an inhibition zone above the droplet in the Petri plate lid for E. coli, P.

syringae 4612 and M. luteus.To test how much time was required for allicin to diffuse through the gas phase and achieve an inhibitory concentration at the seeded agar, a time-resolved experiment with allicin and E. coli was carried out.The results show that as little as one hour of exposure to allicin already leads to an effective growth inhibition of bacteria above the drop.Figure 6 Allicin (20 µL droplet of 80 mM solution) shows inhibitory effects against E.

coli in this test dependent on exposure time, with maximum inhibition reached after only four hours exposure.Inhibition can be seen in comparison to growth on control plates without test substance.E. coli cells (Gram-negative) were hardly inhibited by 100 µM DMTS, DPTS or DBTS whereas allicin and DETS caused a high degree of inhibition after 36 h. In the agar diffusion test, E.

coli cells were inhibited by all test substances and this result demonstrates the importance of not relying on the conditions of a single test when assessing the antimicrobial effectivity of test compounds.Thus, the standard EUCAST procedure uses a low titre of cells in stationary culture, the agar diffusion test works with a concentration gradient, the drop test incorporates the substance at fixed concentrations and different cell densities are tested, whereas shake culture exposes the test cells under conditions of continuous agitation and high aeration.In the drop tests, Gram-negative P. syringae 4612 cells were inhibited strongly by all thiosulfinates up to 48 h after plating out (Fig.Figure 7 Drop test illustrating the relative inhibitory activities of the thiosulfinates incorporated into growth medium at 100 µM on E.

coli, P. syringae 4612 and M. luteus, respectively.Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used as a model fungus in drop tests on agar medium containing the test substance and in shake culture in 96 well plates (see next section) to assess the antimycotic activity of thiosulfinates.In the drop test, 10 µL of 10-fold serial dilutions were plated out onto control medium, or medium containing 5 µM of the test thiosulfinate.Thus, the mutants chosen are all appropriately relevant for testing and comparing the mechanism of action of allicin in relation to GSH metabolism, with respect to the other thiosulfinates (Fig.DMTS at 5 µM did not affect the growth of the wt or any of the mutant cells (Fig.DETS at 5 µM was not inhibitory for BY4742 wildtype, but clearly inhibited Δyap1, Δglr1, Δzwf1, Δgnd1 cells at this concentration.DBTS showed the highest toxicity to yeast of the thiosulfinates tested and again the drop test did not resolve any differential toxicity for DPTS at 5 µM between the wt and the mutants.Figure 9 Drop test of S.

cerevisiae cells on CSM medium containing test thiosulfinates at 5 µM.The wt BY4742 was compared with the Δyap1 and other mutants.Figure 10 Effects of 50 µM thiosulfinates on the growth in shake culture of wt BY4742 and Δyap1, Δglr1, Δzwf1, Δgnd1, and Δtrx2 mutant yeast cells in CSM.(a) CSM alone (control); (b) DMTS; (c) DETS; (d) DATS (allicin); (e) DPTS.Figure 11 Effect of DBTS on the growth in CSM of wt BY4742 and Δyap1, Δglr1, Δzwf1, Δgnd1, and Δtrx2 mutant yeast cells in CSM and the synergistic effect of DMF with allicin.(f) 25 µM allicin and (g) 25 µM allicin in 0.5% DMF.Therefore, the effects of thiosulfinates on wt and Δyap1, Δglr1, Δzwf1, Δgnd1, and Δtrx2 yeast mutants were also investigated in shake culture because this has the additional advantage of providing relative growth kinetics and not just an end-point result48.In contrast to the stationary culture conditions in the MIC and MBC tests, or in drop tests where cells are plated onto medium containing the test substance, in shake culture cells tend to grow more robustly and generally tolerate higher concentrations of antibiotics.Previous experiments had shown that 50 µM allicin reduced the growth rate of wt BY4742 cells by approximately 50% at the end time point of 15 h in shake culture in CSM medium.Therefore, in these experiments we exposed the cells to 50 µM of thiosulfinates for comparison.DPTS at 50 µM was more inhibitory than allicin to the wt and again completely inhibitory to all of the mutants (Fig.This activity series can also be seen in the drop test, but the increased sensitivity of the mutants to DPTS compared to the wt was not resolved (Fig.DMF at this concentration showed no significant effect on growth of either the wt or the mutants in comparison to the CSM controls (Fig.However, a dose-dependent inhibition of wt and mutants can be seen at 5, 10 and 25 µM, with the latter concentration being completely inhibitory to the growth of all yeast strains (Fig.It can clearly be seen that the Δglr1 mutant is the most sensitive and this was completely inhibited for the duration of the experiment at 5 µM DBTS in 0.5% DMF.This very high degree of inhibition compared to the other thiosulfinates, suggests that DBTS had the greatest activity of the thiosulfinate series against Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a result which corresponds to the drop test results shown in Fig.Notably, a synergistic effect was observed between DMF and allicin, which at 25 µM showed a lesser inhibitory effect without DMF than with 0.5% DMF where it also completely inhibited the growth of wt and all mutant cells (Fig.To sum up the results of the chemogenetic profiling, the observation that the chosen mutants were generally more sensitive to thiosulfinates than the wt suggests that the other thiosulfinates are probably acting similarly to allicin and targeting the cellular GSH pool and GSH metabolism as well as resulting in protein thiol oxidation3,20,36,38.Thus, it seems that GSH is the first line of cellular defence and the ability of the cells to reduce GSSG to GSH is crucial for the cells’s resistance to allicin and the other thiosulfinates.Nevertheless, the tendency that DMTS was least toxic and allicin most toxic to A549 cells was a clearly visible trend in all the experiments and the data confirm that the analogues are of similar toxicity to allicin.The concentration-dependent inhibition of root growth by thiosulfinates is shown in Fig.The enhanced sensitivity of GSH metabolism mutants compared to the Col-0 wt confirms the results of the chemogenetic screen with yeast mutants (Figs. .

5 Natural Antibiotics to Try at Home

Certain plant extracts, essential oils, and even foods have antibiotic properties.A small sampling study of 58 Chinese plants found that 23 had antibacterial properties and 15 had antifungal properties.To use honey as an antibiotic, apply it directly to the wound or infected area.The honey can help kill off the bacteria and aid in the healing process.A 2011 study found that garlic concentrate is effective against bacteria.You can purchase garlic concentrate or extract at your local health food store.If you’re taking a garlic supplement, be sure to follow the dosage directions as provided.Option 5: Oregano essential oil Share on Pinterest Carvacrol is an ingredient found in oregano essential oil.You shouldn’t ingest oregano essential oil or use undiluted essential oil on the skin.lemon Buy oregano essential oil here. .

Garlic counteracts virulent bacteria -- ScienceDaily

My PhD thesis demonstrates that ajoene -- the substance present in garlic -- specifically prevents the bacteria from secreting the toxin rhamnolipid which destroys white blood cells in the body.White blood cells are indispensable because they play a crucial role in the immune defence system, not only warding off infection, but also killing bacteria," explains Tim Holm Jakobsen, PhD Student at the Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, who will be defending his thesis on 21 February.From a technical perspective, the ajoene blocks the communication system -- known as Quorum Sensing -- in the bacteria, which is used for purposes including creating infection."There's a lot of money in pharmaceuticals for treating chronic illnesses such as diabetes, but if we are to win the race against bacteria, we need to bring new antibiotics into play. .

Essential Oils From Garlic and Other Herbs and Spices Kill

Laboratory study hints that plant compounds may be better than current antibiotics at treating persistent Lyme bacteria and associated symptoms.The study, published October 16 in the journal Antibiotics, included lab-dish tests of 35 essential oils—oils that are pressed from plants or their fruits and contain the plant’s main fragrance, or “essence.” The Bloomberg School researchers found that 10 of these, including oils from garlic cloves, myrrh trees, thyme leaves, cinnamon bark, allspice berries and cumin seeds, showed strong killing activity against dormant and slow-growing “persister” forms of the Lyme disease bacterium.However, about 10 to 20 percent of patients report persistent symptoms including fatigue and joint pain—often termed “persistent Lyme infection” or “post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome” (PTLDS) that in some cases can last for months or years.In the new study Zhang and his team extended their lab-dish testing to include 35 other essential oils, and found 10 that show significant killing activity against stationary phase Lyme bacteria cultures at concentrations of just one part per thousand.Lab-dish tests such as these represent an early stage of research, but Zhang and colleagues hope in the near future to continue their investigations of essential oils with tests in live animals, including tests in mouse models of persistent Lyme infection. .

6 Surprising Ways Garlic Boosts Your Health – Cleveland Clinic

Roasted in olive oil, it can melt in your mouth like butter, while chopped and raw, it can taste pungent and sharp.“It’s the organic sulfur compound allicin in garlic that gives it its pungent smell and makes it a healthy addition to your diet,” says dietitian Laura Jeffers, MEd, RD, LD.According to one study involving 41,000 middle-aged women, those who routinely ate garlic, fruits and vegetables had a 35% lower colon cancer risk.Improves cardiovascular health: Research indicates that it can have a positive impact on your arteries and blood pressure.The good news is that you may be able to put your blood pressure medication away, so consult with your doctor if adding more garlic to your diet could be helpful for you.The enzymes from the allicin need a few minutes to start working, so let it sit after you mince, crush or chop it.Garlic’s health benefits are plenty, but don’t add too much to your diet too quickly, as tempting as it may be.Overdoing it can cause discomfort, including upset stomach, bloating, diarrhea, body odor and bad breath.“You may also get a stinging feeling on the skin if you handle significant amounts of fresh and dried garlic,” says Jeffers.On rare occasions, garlic supplements can cause headaches, fatigue, appetite loss, muscle aches, dizziness and allergic reactions such as asthma attacks or skin rashes. .

Cooked garlic still kills bacteria

A new study suggests that cooked garlic can still kill bacteria, though less efficiently than does a raw bulb.She created extracts of raw garlic and garlic and then boiled them for 15 minutes. .

Garlic for Health

A study conducted at Bastyr University, a natural heath sciences school and research center near Seattle, showed that a garlic oil extract cured all warts it was applied to within two weeks.Recent data shows that water based extracts where the allicin has been stabilized are also very effective at killing bacteria, fungi and viral infections. .

Allicin, a natural antimicrobial defence substance from garlic, inhibits

Allicin (diallylthiosulfinate) is a potent antimicrobial substance, produced by garlic tissues upon wounding as a defence against pathogens and pests.Allicin inhibited E. coli DNA gyrase activity in vitro in the same concentration range as nalidixic acid. .

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