But it fell out of favour during the second world war: food historian Ivan Day thinks garlic was seen as “foreign muck” by the generation of men and women living off bully beef and reconstituted egg - “they got a taste for simplicity”.Have a flick through a 1950s recipe book and you can see where the UK gets its reputation for bland food – it’s all pork chops with boiled carrots and cauliflower.Paul A Young, one of Britain’s master chocolatiers, developed a caramelised garlic chocolate for Halloween in 2014: the clove is roasted and combined with a ganache.Arnaud Stevens, chef at Sixtyone thinks that garlic has become more popular in the UK because we’ve become more health conscious than ever. .
What Is Garlic?
What Is Garlic?Covered in an inedible papery skin, the bulb, or head as it is more often referred to, is comprised of individual sections called cloves, and there can be anywhere from 10 to 20 cloves per head.How to Cook With Garlic.The entire head of garlic can be roasted whole and the tender cloves used as a spread or added to a soup or sauce.Before adding garlic to a recipe, the papery skin needs to be removed.If you want to mince garlic without a knife, pressing the cloves with the tines of a fork will produce better results than a grater or food processor.When eaten raw, garlic has a powerful, pungent flavor.But if you would like the garlic to be the star of the dish, choose a recipe with garlic in the title.Garlic is also sold in jars with olive oil, either as whole, peeled cloves or minced cloves.Keep in mind that anything other than fresh garlic will taste different, and some products may have added ingredients.It is easy to grow garlic in either the garden or in containers. .
The Garlic Invasion
When I talk about Italian food in the United States, there is one unavoidable ingredient: garlic.Beside its debated strong taste, garlic has several qualities that made it especially popular with Italian immigrants who came to the United States: it's cheap, it stores well, and it's supposedly very good for your immune system."When Italian immigrants came to this country, they were penniless and may have used garlic to mask the poor quality of their food," says Robin Cherry."The late cookbook author Marcella Hazan, who's credited with introducing authentic Italian cooking to Americans, tried to warn us, cautioning that "The unbalanced use of garlic is the single greatest cause of failure in would-be Italian cooking," says Robin Cherry. .
It started its journey in central Asia, domesticated during Neolithic times, spread to the Middle East and northern Africa in 3000 BC, which quickly enabled it to reach Europe.The incredible journey of garlic through our history touched every major civilization of the ancient world, but its true origins lie in West and Central Asia.The most notable records from those ancient times come from Egypt, where garlic was used regularly by both nobles, common people and slaves as food seasoning, medicinal ingredient, religious ingredient (they believed it can prolong life), antiseptic for curing wounds and preventing gangrene, and even as a direct source of strength.In Asia garlic was viewed more as medical ingredient than a food seasoning plant. .
Species of plant.Garlic Allium sativum, known as garlic, from William Woodville, Medical Botany, 1793.Allium ophioscorodon Link.Garlic (Allium sativum) is a species of bulbous flowering plant in the genus Allium. It was known to ancient Egyptians and has been used as both a food flavoring and a traditional medicine. China produces 76% of the world's supply of garlic.Allium sativum is a perennial flowering plant growing from a bulb.Origin and major types [ edit ]. Genetically and morphologically, garlic is most similar to the wild species Allium longicuspis, which grows in central and southwestern Asia. However, because Allium longicuspis is also mostly sterile, it is doubtful that it is the ancestor of Allium sativum. Other candidates that have been suggested include Allium tuncelianum, Allium macrochaetum, and Allium truncatum, all of which are native to the Middle East.Allium sativum grows in the wild in areas where it has become naturalized.The "wild garlic", "crow garlic", and "field garlic" of Britain are members of the species Allium ursinum, Allium vineale, and Allium oleraceum, respectively.Bulbs.Subspecies and varieties [ edit ].It is sometimes considered to be a separate species, Allium ophioscorodon G.Don.Cultivation [ edit ].When selecting garlic for planting, it is important to pick large bulbs from which to separate cloves.Hardneck garlic is generally grown in cooler climates and produces relatively large cloves, whereas softneck garlic is generally grown closer to the equator and produces small, tightly packed cloves.The scapes can be eaten raw or cooked.Diseases [ edit ]. The larvae of the leek moth attack garlic by mining into the leaves or bulbs.Production [ edit ]. The resultant compounds are responsible for the sharp or hot taste and strong smell of garlic.A large number of sulfur compounds contribute to the smell and taste of garlic.Allicin has been found to be the compound most responsible for the "hot" sensation of raw garlic.Abundant sulfur compounds in garlic are also responsible for turning garlic green or blue during pickling and cooking. Upon cutting, similar to a color change in onion caused by reactions of amino acids with sulfur compounds, garlic can turn green.History [ edit ].Folk medicine [ edit ].A garlic bulb.Garlic is widely used around the world for its pungent flavor as a seasoning or condiment.The garlic plant's bulb is the most commonly used part of the plant.With the exception of the single clove types, garlic bulbs are normally divided into numerous fleshy sections called cloves.Garlic cloves are used for consumption (raw or cooked) or for medicinal purposes. The distinctive aroma is mainly due to organosulfur compounds including allicin present in fresh garlic cloves and ajoene which forms when they are crushed or chopped.They are milder in flavor than the bulbs, and are most often consumed while immature and still tender.Additionally, the immature flower stalks (scapes) of the hardneck and elephant types are sometimes marketed for uses similar to asparagus in stir-fries.Inedible or rarely eaten parts of the garlic plant include the "skin" covering each clove and root cluster.An alternative is to cut the top off the bulb, coat the cloves by dribbling olive oil (or other oil-based seasoning) over them, and roast them in an oven. Garlic leaves are a popular vegetable in many parts of Asia.Oils can be flavored with garlic cloves.These infused oils are used to season all categories of vegetables, meats, breads, and pasta.Garlic is essential in Middle Eastern and Arabic cooking, with its presence in many food items.In Levantine countries such as Jordan and Lebanon, garlic is traditionally crushed together with olive oil, and occasionally salt, to create a Middle Eastern garlic sauce called Toum (تُوم; meaning "garlic" in Arabic).Garlic, oil, and a chunky base produce skordalia.Blending garlic, almond, oil, and soaked bread produces ajoblanco.Tzatziki, yogurt mixed with garlic and salt, is a common sauce in Eastern Mediterranean cuisines.C are inhibited entirely, in refrigerated cloves one may only see the white mycellium during early stages.Medical research [ edit ].Cancer [ edit ]. Further meta-analyses found similar results on the incidence of stomach cancer by consuming allium vegetables including garlic. A 2014 meta-analysis of observational epidemiological studies found that garlic consumption was associated with a lower risk of stomach cancer in Korean people.A 2016 meta-analysis found no effect of garlic on colorectal cancer. A 2014 meta-analysis found garlic supplements or allium vegetables to have no effect on colorectal cancers.Common cold [ edit ].AMS is a volatile liquid which is absorbed into the blood during the metabolism of garlic-derived sulfur compounds; from the blood it travels to the lungs (and from there to the mouth, causing bad breath; see garlic breath) and skin, where it is exuded through skin pores.The green, dry "folds" in the center of the garlic clove are especially pungent.The sulfur compound allicin, produced by crushing or chewing fresh garlic, produces other sulfur compounds: ajoene, allyl polysulfides, and vinyldithiins.Some people suffer from allergies to garlic and other species of Allium.In Islam, it is recommended not to eat raw garlic prior to going to the mosque.Garlic plant."The Onion Family: Onions, Garlic, Leeks". .
History of Spices
When leaves, seeds, roots, or gums had a pleasant taste or agreeable odor, they became in demand and gradually became a norm for that culture as a flavor enhancer.From the dawn of biblical times (17th century BC), spices were prized for a wide variety of uses including religious offerings, burial rituals, medicines, trade, and seasoning.In 1000 BC, Queen Sheba visited King Solomon in Jerusalem and offered him "120 measures of gold, many spices, and precious stones" (2 Chronicles 9:9).The early publication mentioned more than a hundred medicinal plants including the spice cassia, which is similar to cinnamon (called “kwei”).A later, more comprehensive Chinese herbal, Pen Ts’ao Kang Mu was published in 1596 BC by Li Shih Chen.Anecdotal evidence suggests that Chinese courtiers in the 3rd century BC carried cloves in their mouths so their breath was sweet when addressing the emperor.During the 5th century AD, ginger plants were grown in pots and carried on long sea voyages between China and Southeast Asia to provide fresh food and to prevent scurvy.Ancient cuneiform records noted spice and herb use in Mesopotamia in the fertile Tigris and Euphrates valleys, where many aromatic plants were known.Sumerian clay tablets of medical literature dating from the 3rd millennium BC mention various odoriferous plants, including thyme.A scroll of cuneiform writing, established by King Ashurbanipal of Assyria (668-633 BC), records a long list of aromatic plants, such as thyme, sesame, cardamom, turmeric, saffron, poppy, garlic, cumin, anise, coriander, silphium, dill, and myrrh.Spices and herbs such as black pepper, cinnamon, turmeric, and cardamom have been used by Indians for thousands of years for both culinary and health purposes.Sushruta, an ancient surgeon (around 4th century BC), used white mustard and other aromatic plants in bed sheets to ward off malignant spirits.Spices such as cardamom, ginger, black pepper, cumin, and mustard seed were included in ancient herbal medicines for different types of health benefits.In Ayurvedic medicine, spices such as cloves and cardamom were wrapped in betel-nut leaves and chewed after meals to increase the flow of saliva and aid digestion.Roughly 500 years later, Theophrastus (372-287 BC), sometimes called the "Father of Botany," wrote 2 books that summarized the knowledge of over 600 spices and herbs.The Greek Physician Dioscorides (AD 40–90), wrote De Materia Medica, which was used for botany and medicinal knowledge in both the East and the West for over 1500 years.When the Roman Empire extended to the northern side of the Alps, the Goths, Vandals, and Huns of those regions were introduced to pepper and other spices from the East.They advanced the process of extracting flower scents from blossoms and herbs and created techniques to distill essential oils from aromatic plants.European apothecaries used Asian spices (such as ginger, pepper, nutmeg, cinnamon, saffron, and cardamom) as well as garden herbs in their remedies and elixirs.He was the first leader to have farmers plant an abundance of culinary herbs such as anise, fennel, fenugreek, and sage, thyme, parsley, and coriander.In AD 1180, King Henry II founded a "pepperer’s guild" of wholesale merchants, which was a predecessor to the modern day grocery store.Some common medical practices included placing sponges soaked with cinnamon and clove extracts under patients noses, sterilizing rooms with sage smoke, and prescribing saffron, garlic soup, and juniper wine for health benefits.He reported that the wealthy in Karazan ate meat pickled in salt and flavored with spices, while the poor had to be content with hash steeped in garlic.By AD 1501, via the port of Lisbon, Portugal had large quantities of Indian spices such as cinnamon, cassia, ginger, pepper, nutmeg, mace, and cloves.Jamestown, Virginia founder Captain John Smith (AD 1580-1631) wrote about spices, such as sassafras and onions, employed for medicinal purposes by the Native Americans (6).They traded American salmon, codfish, tobacco, snuff, flour, soap, candles, butter, cheese, and beef, for spices such as pepper, cassia, cloves, cinnamon, and ginger.Most of the enormous quantities of pepper were re-exported to European ports (Stockholm, Gothenburg, Hamburg, Copenhagen, and Antwerp) or were transferred to Philadelphia, Boston, and Baltimore for processing and distribution by other American merchants and exporters.After 1846, an overproduction of spices brought a gradual decline in its economic importance until the final demise of the Salem pepper trade following the outbreak of the Civil War in 1861 (AD 1861-1865).A letter found in the United States Library of Congress indicates that ground red and black peppers could be tied to a kite in a releasable bag to find its way into the eyes and noses of the Confederate Army.One of the most promising developments for spices in modern times is that scientific evidence is accumulating that supports the anecdotal health benefits touted by our ancestors.Research shows that culinary spices and herbs may have beneficial effects in areas such as heart health, cognition, and weight management as well as improving diet quality by making healthier foods more acceptable to consumers. .
How Dipping Sauce for Pizza Became Oddly Necessary
America’s four largest pizza chains — Papa John’s, Pizza Hut, Little Caesars, and Domino’s — all offer ranch along with a variety of dips on their menus, tiny upsells that contribute to the $45.15 billion in pizza restaurant sales in 2016.This is how Pizza Hut, founded in 1958, came to offer dipping sauces: due to customer demand.Although Pizza Hut was the first chain to serve breadsticks with sauce (which it would later add to dishes like cheese sticks and garlic knots), it was the Detroit-based Little Caesars, founded just one year after Pizza Hut, in 1959, that first succeeded in marketing dips as essential add-ons.The company introduced Crazy Bread, essentially garlic breadsticks, as a side dish in 1982.“The garlic butter sauce has proven to be a perfect complement to our pizza crust,” Muldoon says.“Some people love dipping the crust so much, they’ll do this first, before eating the pizza.”.After Papa John’s launched its signature pizza dip and Little Caesars debuted Crazy Sauce the following year, dips proliferated.Papa John’s is still the only major chain that includes a custom sauce specifically made for its pizza, but Pizza Hut, Little Caesars, and Domino’s all offer a slew of sauces, sold separately, that you can order with any of their menu items for a small upcharge.It took 10 years after the introduction of Crazy Sauce for Little Caesars to introduce any other dips to its menu, but in 1995 it started to promote Crazy Dippers, now called Caesar Dips, marking the incorporation of the four other sauces on the Little Caesars menu today: ranch, Cheezy Jalapeño, buttery garlic, and buffalo ranch.If you place an order online with most pizza chains, you’ll get a prompt that asks if you want to add x sauce for x cents more.“I'm sure [pizza chains] have people thinking about what’s going to be the next big thing,” Stanton says.Jenny Zhang is Eater’s newsletter editor and will not apologize for her love of mediocre chain pizza. .
Bread topped with garlic and olive oil or butter.Garlic bread (also called garlic toast) consists of bread (usually a baguette or sour dough like a ciabatta), topped with garlic and olive oil or butter and may include additional herbs, such as oregano or chives.The bread is then stuffed through the cuts with oil and minced garlic before baking.Some restaurants use clarified butter in place of olive oil.Garlic bread is widely popular across Europe, and is available in many different food shops and restaurants.In England, butter is used instead of olive oil in garlic bread.Garlic bread?"). .
5 Facts About Garlic, a Favorite Italian Ingredient
Your pizza, pasta, and salad would not have the same zing without this unique, bulbous herb.NDTV Food says that it contains a compound called allicin at helps regulate blood pressure and blood sugar levels, helping to protect against cancer and heart disease.The idea of rubbing garlic on your skin may sound a little smelly, but doing so may actually help slow the aging process and ease symptoms of eczema.Historians have found evidence of garlic being used in Asia as long as 7,000 years ago.Over the centuries, it spread through the Middle East, and the European crusaders began bringing it home with them.La Gazzetta Italiana says that garlic was not popular in the U.S. until the early 20th century, when people from southern Europe began immigrating.These immigrants brought garlic cloves in their trunks, and they planted them in the U.S. upon arrival.Garlic was well suited to the climate in the northern states, so it caught on quickly and soon became a staple in American grocery stores and farmers' markets. .
Tales of walking corpses that drank the blood of the living and spread plague flourished in medieval Europe in times of disease.Vampires have been featured in folklore and fiction of various cultures for hundreds of years, predominantly in Europe, although belief in them has waned in modern times.Vampires have been featured in folklore and fiction of various cultures for hundreds of years, predominantly in Europe , although belief in them has waned in modern times.In some stories vampires may enter a home only if they have been invited, and in others they may be distracted by the scattering of objects such as seeds or grains that they are compelled to count, thereby enabling potential victims to escape.Because there is a long history of walking corpses and bloodsucking ghouls in folklore, it is difficult to pin down a distinct set of characteristics consistently attributed only to vampires.Central to vampire myth , however, is the consumption of human blood or other essence (such as bodily fluids or psychic energy), followed closely by the possession of sharp teeth or fangs with which to facilitate this task.Digging up the bodies of suspected vampires was practiced in many cultures throughout Europe, and it is thought that the natural characteristics of decomposition—such as receding gums and the appearance of growing hair and fingernails—reinforced the belief that corpses were in fact continuing some manner of life after death.Because of the constraints of medical diagnosis at the time, people who were very ill, or sometimes even very drunk, and in a coma or in shock were thought dead and later “miraculously” recovered—sometimes too late to prevent their burial.Vampire poems began appearing in English about the turn of the 19th century, such as John Stagg’s “The Vampyre” (1810) and Lord Byron’s The Giaour (1813).The first prose vampire story published in English is believed to be John Polidori’s “The Vampyre” (1819), about a mysterious aristocrat named Lord Ruthven who seduces young women only to drain their blood and disappear.The tale of the Transylvanian count who uses supernatural abilities, including mind control and shape-shifting, to prey upon innocent victims inspired countless works thereafter.The novel itself is thought by some to have been inspired in part by the cruel acts of the 15th-century prince Vlad III Dracula of Transylvania, also known as “the Impaler,” and Countess Elizabeth Báthory, who was believed to have murdered dozens of young women during the 16th and 17th centuries in order to bathe in or possibly drink their blood so as to preserve her own vitality.Other aspects of the movie, however, were so similar to Stoker’s novel that his widow sued for copyright infringement, and many copies of the film were subsequently destroyed.In the 20th century vampires began to turn from being depicted as predominantly animalistic creatures and instead displayed a broader range of human characteristics.Ray Bradbury explored the sympathetic portrayal of what can be thought of as “monsters,” including vampires, in “Homecoming” (1946), a story about a “normal” boy with a family of fantastical creatures.In 1975 Fred Saberhagen published The Dracula Tape, a retelling of Stoker’s story from the misunderstood villain’s point of view.In 1991 Lori Herter published Obsession, one of the first vampire novels to be categorized as romance rather than science fiction, fantasy, or horror. .