You cut into a clove of garlic, only to find its lily white interior tainted by the green stripe of a developing shoot.A few weeks later, sprouts will emerge from the tips of every garlic clove in the house, turning entire bulbs into Medusa heads.Either dig out the little plant or cook with it undaunted, knowing the verdant imperfection tastes exactly like the bulb that hosts it.And every year, some aspiring garlic growers will fall under the spell of a sprouted clove, and decide to plant the little guy in the dirt.Planted in fall, it will sense the moist earth and send out roots, and then hibernate through the winter.Fast forward to the present moment: the garlic I planted last fall is now producing delicious shoots called scapes, curly stems with pointy flower-like tips that emerge from the center of the plant around the summer solstice.Garlic growers will diligently pick every scape, so as to encourage the plant to focus on its below-ground portion.It’s fun chopped in stir-fries, or steamed whole, or held and chomped on like curly green cigars on poker night, or woven into garlands and placed atop our heads while we prance about like Greek divinity.Going to the farmer’s market now in search of scapes to eat can be an important first step in finding your source for the seed garlic that you will plant in October.As a home gardener, you don’t have to worry about the financial devastation of a diseased garlic crop.I didn’t get my Romanian Red from Engelend, but rather we both got it from the same source: Idaho’s late, great Jack Ronniger, keeper of the best garlic and rare potato strains.This assertive, pale green paste makes a great spread, filling or ingredient.The nuts and parsley add a rich thickness and grassy fragrance, making it something of a cross between pesto and romesco sauce. .

Insect Control

NOTES: For the insecticides listed below, one product trade name and formulation is provided for each active ingredient (AI) as an example of rates, preharvest interval (PHI), restricted entry interval (REI), and special instructions.Plants grown from infected seed may lack vigor and produce stunted, deformed leaves.Plants may outgrow the damage if the infestation is not heavy, but mites may increase in number over the growing season and will remain in the harvested garlic.They are particularly troublesome in storage, causing dessication and creating wounds that allow for entry of pathogens.Avoid adding manure and use fallow periods to eliminate crop residue.In smaller plantings, removing culls from the field immediately after harvest will reduce overwintering populations.Dark plastic mulch will increase soil temperatures and control mites.Avoid planting Alliums directly after brassicas, corn, grain, or grass cover crops.Lacewing larvae, pirate bugs and predatory thrips are important natural enemies.Reduce populations by cleaning up crop residue after harvest to limit overwintering sites.The most common controls for leek and garlic diseases include the use of disease resistant cultivars and pathogen-free seed and bulbs, and cultural practices such as crop rotation and crop residue management that restrict the pathogens.Beauveria bassiana (Mycotrol ESO): 0.25 qt to 1 qt/A; PHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee: L, Group 22.strain A396 cells and spent fermentation media (Venerate XCOG): 1 to 8 qt/A; PHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee: M. Suppression only.Chenopodium extract (Requiem EC): 1.5 to 3 qts/A; PHI 0d, REI 4h, Bee: L. Begin application as soon as thrips are seen.pyrethrin (PyGanic EC5.0OG): 4.5 to 17 oz/A; 0.25 to 0.50 oz/gal, 3 gal/1000 sq ft in greenhouse for backpack sprayers; PHI 0d, REI 12h, Bee: M, Group 3A. .

Sustainable Agriculture Program

A good source of information for least-toxic and organic approved pesticides can be found in ATTRA’s Biorationals: Ecological Pest Management Database.In his publication Aphids—Botanical Control Formulations, NCAT Agriculture Specialist Justin Duncan offers several botanical solutions to manage aphids, including garlic, papaya leaves, rosemary, and mint. .


Its close relatives include garlic, scallion, leek, chive,[4] and Chinese onion.The name wild onion is applied to a number of Allium species, but A. cepa is exclusively known from cultivation.Its ancestral wild original form is not known, although escapes from cultivation have become established in some regions.[6] The onion is most frequently a biennial or a perennial plant, but is usually treated as an annual and harvested in its first growing season.In the autumn (or in spring, in the case of overwintering onions), the foliage dies down and the outer layers of the bulb become more dry and brittle.Some varieties of A. cepa, such as shallots and potato onions, produce multiple bulbs.As a food item, they are usually served cooked, as a vegetable or part of a prepared savoury dish, but can also be eaten raw or used to make pickles or chutneys.A.

cepa is known exclusively from cultivation,[6] but related wild species occur in Central Asia.[13] However, Zohary and Hopf state that "there are doubts whether the A. vavilovii collections tested represent genuine wild material or only feral derivatives of the crop.Cepa is commonly accepted as Latin for "onion" and has an affinity with Ancient Greek: κάπια (kápia) and Albanian: qepë and is ancestral to Aromanian: tseapã, Catalan: ceba, Occitan: ceba, Portuguese: cebola, Spanish: cebolla, Italian: cipolla, and Romanian: ceapă.The base of each leaf is a flattened, usually white sheath that grows out of the basal plate of a bulb.From the underside of the plate, a bundle of fibrous roots extends for a short way into the soil.In the autumn, the leaves die back and the outer scales of the bulb become dry and brittle, so the crop is then normally harvested.If left in the soil over winter, the growing point in the middle of the bulb begins to develop in the spring.New leaves appear and a long, stout, hollow stem expands, topped by a bract protecting a developing inflorescence.The inflorescence takes the form of a globular umbel of white flowers with parts in sixes.Hortus Sanitatis (1547) Medieval woodcut print depicting an onion, from the Latin encyclopedia(1547).[3]: 20-21 [19] Onions have been variously described as having originated in Iran, western Pakistan and Central Asia.[21][19][failed verification] Ancient Egyptians revered the onion bulb, viewing its spherical shape and concentric rings as symbols of eternal life.Pliny the Elder of the first century AD wrote about the use of onions and cabbage in Pompeii.He documented Roman beliefs about the onion's ability to improve ocular ailments, aid in sleep, and heal everything from oral sores and toothaches to dog bites, lumbago, and even dysentery.Archaeologists unearthing Pompeii long after its 79 AD volcanic burial have found gardens resembling those in Pliny's detailed narratives.[19] According to texts collected in the fifth/sixth century AD under the authorial aegis of "Apicius" (said to have been a gourmet), onions were used in many Roman recipes.In the Age of Discovery, onions were taken to North America by the first European settlers,[17] only to discover the plant readily available, and in wide use in Native American gastronomy.[17] According to diaries kept by certain first English colonists, the bulb onion was one of the first crops planted by the Pilgrim fathers.Young plants may be harvested before bulbing occurs and used whole as spring onions or scallions.Onions are available in fresh, frozen, canned, caramelised, pickled, and chopped forms.The dehydrated product is available as kibbled, sliced, ring, minced, chopped, granulated, and powder forms.Being dehydrated, it has a long shelf life and is available in several varieties: yellow, red, and white.They are versatile and can be baked, boiled, braised, grilled, fried, roasted, sautéed, or eaten raw in salads.[28] Their layered nature makes them easy to hollow out once cooked, facilitating stuffing them, as in Turkish sogan-dolma.Onions pickled in vinegar are eaten as a snack around the world, and as a side serving in pubs and fish and chip shops throughout the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth.They are part of a traditional British pub's ploughman's lunch, usually served with crusty bread, English cheese, and ale.Similar to garlic,[29] onions can show an additional colour – pink-red – after cutting, an effect caused by reactions of amino acids with sulfur compounds.Forming a single layer of cells, the bulb epidermis is easy to separate for educational, experimental, and breeding purposes.[33][34] Onions are therefore commonly used in science education to teach the use of a microscope for observing cell structure.Onions are toxic to dogs, cats, guinea pigs, and many other animals.Onions contain quercetin, a plant pigment which has antioxidant properties in vitro.The results of a Japanese study suggest that onions help in reducing oxidative stress caused by diabetes.[39] Another study conducted in China concluded that onion juice reduces oxidative stress and can be recommended to patients dealing with bone problems like osteoporosis.Most onion cultivars are about 89% water, 9% carbohydrates (including 4% sugar and 2% dietary fibre), 1% protein, and negligible fat (table).Onion polyphenols are under basic research to determine their possible biological properties in humans.[43] Symptoms can include contact dermatitis, intense itching, rhinoconjunctivitis, blurred vision, bronchial asthma, sweating, and anaphylaxis.Cut onions emit certain compounds which cause the lacrimal glands in the eyes to become irritated, releasing tears.Freshly cut onions often cause a stinging sensation in the eyes of people nearby, and often uncontrollable tears.This is caused by the release of a volatile liquid, syn-propanethial-S-oxide and its aerosol, which stimulates nerves in the eye.[8] This gas is produced by a chain of reactions which serve as a defence mechanism: chopping an onion causes damage to cells which releases enzymes called alliinases.[8] This gas diffuses through the air and soon reaches the eyes, where it activates sensory neurons.[45] Leaving the root end intact also reduces irritation as the onion base has a higher concentration of sulphur compounds than the rest of the bulb.[46] Refrigerating the onions before use reduces the enzyme reaction rate and using a fan can blow the gas away from the eyes.The amount of sulfenic acids and lacrimal factor released and the irritation effect differs among Allium species.[48] One study suggests that consumers prefer the flavor of onions with lower LFS content.[49] However, since the LFS-silencing process involves reducing sulfur ingestion by the plant, it has also been suggested that LFS− onions are inferior in flavor.[52][53] In early 2018, Bayer released the first crop yield of commercially available LFS-silenced onions under the name "Sunions.Guinea hen weed and honey garlic contain a similar lachrymatory factor.[56] Synthetic onion lachrymatory factor has been used in a study related to tear production,[57] and has been proposed as a nonlethal deterrent against thieves and intruders.Phosphorus is often present in sufficient quantities, but may be applied before planting because of its low level of availability in cold soils.Southern European and North African varieties are often known as "intermediate-day" types, requiring only 12–13 hours of daylight to stimulate bulb formation.[62] Hot temperatures or other stressful conditions cause them to "bolt", meaning that a flower stem begins to grow.As the seedlings emerge and crowd each other, they are progressively thinned until the proper distance, usually 4" to 6", between each plant is attained.[62][64] In suitable climates, certain cultivars can be sown in late summer and autumn to overwinter in the ground and produce early crops the following year.[65] Certain cultivars used for growing and storing bulbs may not have such good storage characteristics as those grown directly from seed.Routine care during the growing season involves keeping the rows free of competing weeds, especially when the plants are young.The bulbs can be gathered when needed to eat fresh, but if they will be stored, they are harvested after the leaves have died back naturally.Shanking is a condition in which the central leaves turn yellow and the inner part of the bulb collapses into an unpleasant-smelling slime.[66] The larvae of the onion leaf miner or leek moth (Acrolepiopsis assectella) sometimes attack the foliage and may burrow down into the bulb.The fly is attracted to the crop by the smell of damaged tissue and is liable to occur after thinning.The larvae tunnel into the bulbs and the foliage wilts and turns yellow.The onion eelworm (Ditylenchus dipsaci), a tiny parasitic soil-living nematode, causes swollen, distorted foliage.White rot of onions, leeks, and garlic is caused by the soil-borne fungus Sclerotium cepivorum.The bases of the bulbs are attacked and become covered by a fluffy white mass of mycelia, which later produces small, globular black structures called sclerotia.No cure for this fungal disease exists, so affected plants should be removed and destroyed and the ground used for unrelated crops in subsequent years.The symptoms often first occur where the bulb has been damaged and spread downwards in the affected scales.Antifungal seed dressings are available and the disease can be minimised by preventing physical damage to the bulbs at harvesting, careful drying and curing of the mature onions, and correct storage in a cool, dry place with plenty of circulating air.In 2019, world production of onions and shallots (as green produce) was 4.5 million tonnes, led by China with 22% of the world total, and Japan, Mali, and South Korea as secondary producers.Sweet onions can be stored refrigerated; they have a shelf life of around 1 month.Irrespective of type, any cut pieces of onion are best tightly wrapped, stored away from other produce, and used within two to three days.Most of the diversity within A.

cepa occurs within this group, the most economically important Allium crop.Plants within this group form large single bulbs, and are grown from seed or seed-grown sets.[3]: 20-21 The range of diversity found among these cultivars includes variation in photoperiod (length of day that triggers bulbing), storage life, flavour, and skin colour.Shallots are the most important subgroup within this group and comprise the only cultivars cultivated commercially.This small-bulb type has a shallot-like flavour and is easy to grow and ideal for hot, dry climates.Tops die back in the heat of summer and may return with heavy rains; bulbs can remain in the ground or be harvested and stored in a cool dry place for planting in the fall.There are very small genetic differences between 'Pran' and the Croatian clone 'Ljutika', implying a monophyletic origin for this species. .

Daily Tip: Plant an Organic Winter Garden

For other areas of the garden, cover cropping in the fall will prevent erosion and boost nitrogen content.These high-potassium roots are native to the United States, and they make a great winter treat roasted with olive oil and garlic. .

Don't fret; there's time to plant – The Denver Post

As summer starts to wane and the garden has yielded every possible salad, jar of tomatoes and batch of pesto, there’s still a little more life left in that soil.Frank Stonaker, director of the Specialty Crops Program, Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture at Colorado State University, says many become sweeter with frost.“This slow germinator will emerge and grow slowly into fall and winter and is very frost tolerant,” says Stonaker, suggesting the mildly peppery rosettes can be used in salads.Purple chive flowers add specks of color and oniony flavor to salads; the green parts can be snipped over foods as garnish.To increase the chances for a successful autumn garden, Stonaker recommends careful watering, and plant and soil protection.To protect the soil from wind erosion, Stonaker suggests a good blanket of mulch or an early fall cover crop. .

Live Plants

(Pilea peperomioides) Unusual saucer-shaped leaves with glossy, waxy finish make this house plant particularly special and quite soothing in the home.Native to the mountainous forest understory of Yunnan and Sichuan provinces of China, where it is known to symbolize prosperity.Western interest began with Scottish botanist George Forrest collecting samples in China in the early 1900s.Once American house plant lovers caught wind of this easy to care for and strikingly unusual specimen, it became an overnight sensation. .

Agronomic Minute: Getting Ahead of Walnut Blight

In making plans for the coming season, growers will want to keep in mind the most effective approach for mitigating any potential damage.Technical Service Lead for Specialty Crops for UPL, Joe Vassios said that after lower levels of infection last year, growers may not be as diligent in their preparations.“Last season, with the hot dry conditions that we had here in California, walnut blight pressure was lower than it can be in many years. .


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