Abstract Global warming is expected to cause earlier springs and increased primary productivity in the Arctic.An early onset of spring and high peak plant productivity had positive effects on calf autumn body masses and female reproductive success.The quantity of food available, as determined by the onset of vegetation green-up and plant productivity over the summer were the main drivers of body mass growth and reproductive success.Citation: Tveraa T, Stien A, Bårdsen B-J, Fauchald P (2013) Population Densities, Vegetation Green-Up, and Plant Productivity: Impacts on Reproductive Success and Juvenile Body Mass in Reindeer.Introduction Over the next century global warming is expected to result in a longer growing season [1] and a 50% increase in the above ground biomass in Arctic tundra [2].Consequently it has been proposed that earlier springs and longer growing seasons will benefit ungulates, and alleviate negative impacts of climate change caused by more difficult winters with compacted and crusted snow or icing [3].Therefore earlier springs may cause a mismatch between optimal forage conditions and the timing of reproduction [11,12, see 13 for similar results and conclusions in birds].In addition, density dependent effects may strongly affect ungulates [17], [18] but this factor is seldom accounted for in the studies of Rangifer referred to above [but see 8].Furthermore, it has been proposed that the effect of environmental conditions in early summer depends on population density, but so far, direct evidence supporting this is lacking [10].Reindeer in northern Norway have a higher reproductive success and are heavier in summers when overall plant productivity is high [19].Discussion We found that an early onset of spring and high peak plant productivity positively affected both reproductive success of females and autumn body masses of calves.Global climate change is expected to cause a shift towards earlier springs and an increase in plant productivity [1], [2], [21].Reindeer population in our study region are therefore expected to experience improved reproductive success as a result of climate change.Early onset of vegetation green-up and peak plant productivity had positive impact on body masses of calves in the autumn and the reproductive success of females in our study system.In contrast, the rate of vegetation green-up had no statistically significant impact on either female reproductive success or autumn calf body mass.However, often satellite derived indices of vegetation growth are correlated meaning that disentangling the relative impact of various measures are difficult [4], [23], [24].Among our populations both positive and negative correlations between onset of spring and peak plant productivity were evident and both these vegetation indices affected gain in body mass of calves and reproductive success of females.In our case the onset of vegetation green-up was synchronous over a large spatial scale, while peak plant productivity was not (Figure 1).Such complex interactions have the potential to preclude the interpretation of results if positive effects of early vegetation green-up are counteracted by low plant productivity.Studies of red deer suggest that complex interactions between vegetation green-up in summer, and temperature and precipitation in winter play a key role in their dynamics [6].As expected we found negative relationships between population size and body mass of calves and reproductive success of females.Contrary to our expectation [25], [26], however, we found no strong evidence in support of the hypothesis that variation in vegetation green-up has a stronger effect on the reindeer in years with high population densities.What should be noted in this context is that the reindeer populations in the study region are all kept at fairly high densities through predator control and low harvest rates.This is in contrast to caribou at Greenland where calving takes place in the first half of June, or one to three weeks after onset of spring [12].A number of studies correlating population trends to large scale weather phenomena have documented that reindeer [24], [28]–[30] as well as other herbivores suffer in warm and wet winter climate [31]–[34].Reindeer densities are generally high due to extensive predator control and low harvest rates in Northern Norway [37].An extensive network of fences in combination with natural barriers (notably coastlines and mountain ranges) ensures that the various populations are kept within their designated area.We restricted our analysis to data from 127,019 calves slaughtered between 1 September and 31 December to remove possible effects of late winter feeding conditions on calf body masses.The Terra platform has daily bypasses and due to sensor orbit overlap up to 64 observations per pixel is potentially available for each 16 day period.The 16 d composites are based on the best available data for each pixel as judged from viewing angle, presence of clouds and atmospheric contamination [20].Prior to calculation of vegetation phenology we removed pixels containing lakes, and glaciers based on detailed maps of Norway.Based on these correlations, we continued our analyses using onset of spring, rate of green-up and peak plant productivity as independent predictor variables.We modelled calf body mass in the autumn and reproductive success as a function of density of females per reindeer husbandry unit (log[N t] ), onset of spring, rate of green-up, and peak plant productivity.Based on our a priori expectations, we kept population size in all analyses and examined the model fit including one of the bio-climatic measures (onset of spring, rate of green-up, peak plant productivity) at a time. .

Green Up Your Home with Plants • Chippers Inc.

The key to success is to mimic your plants’ natural environment via watering and humidity levels, nutrient additives and light.When it comes to watering and creating humidity for indoor plants, we tend to over-water and under-humidify.To accommodate for humidity, I simply fill a spray bottle with water and spritz the top of the leaves twice a week, as most plants like a 50% humidity environment.Plants require three major elements for healthy growth: nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K).It’s important to know what light levels your plant prefers.So add a little, or a lot of green to your home environment with gardening indoors this winter and then enjoy it year round. .

When Green-up Arrives, Do You Suffer From 'Plant Blindness'?

Go to the Madison River west of Bozeman and instead of hiking the (wonderfully snow-free) Beartrap Canyon trail, continue over the highway bridge, turn onto the dirt road to the right, park, and start wandering up Red Mountain.You’ll see a golden eagle nest tucked into some of the oldest rocks on the continent, perhaps finding a loose chunk of graphic granite along the way.This is the time to start looking down if your attention has somehow failed to be directed toward the plate-sized clusters of bright magenta that surround you: Douglasia montana, or dwarf mountain primrose.We spent more than an hour crossing the windswept slope, climbing gradually and stopping often to peer into the crevices between rocks.Only then did I notice the variety of miniature cushion plants surrounding me, their insect pollinators, and a dark curl of pika scat on a rock.Nonetheless, by now I’ve developed an eye for Orogenia from long practice and my ritual of seeking out the first flowers of spring.We distinguish one kind of critter from another even if we can’t name it right away by noticing features at a glance—the stride, the color and size, perhaps the shape of ears and tail, and if it’s a close encounter, the eyes.They don’t run away or prey on us, so we can ignore them until we need one for food or wood or medicine, and then it remains in place, silently allowing our harvest.Williams, 24 April 2016], “Experimental research and surveys have demonstrated higher preference for, superior recall of, and better visual detection of animals compared with plants.Some of this is due to reduced budgets, but there is also a trend toward replacing plant ecology positions with traditional timber and livestock-related range jobs.Some of this is due to reduced budgets, but there is also a trend toward replacing plant ecology positions with traditional timber and livestock-related range jobs.While driving home from Blacktail Butte, we were slowed by a line of cars parked akimbo in the road.Long lenses and binoculars were aimed at a cow moose browsing willows on the far side of the Gros Ventre River.She was reaching for those high wands of willow with thin and supple bark, flowing xylem, and perhaps a leaf bud or two.Did you notice it more than usual because of a story taking place there (a squirrel, a bird) or the way sunlight shone in its branches?Robin Wall Kimmerer (author of Braiding Sweetgrass, from which this anecdote comes) reports that her botany 101 students sit glassy-eyed or dozing when she talks excitedly about photosynthesis in the classroom.No back yard vegetable garden from which they might have learned about plant growth and its delicious results; they were raised on wilted grocery store greens and wax-covered apples.An art major talked about the beauty and symmetry and unity of the design when the 3 Sisters (corn, beans and squash) grew together.Overcoming the potential boredom factor in kids used to video games and bright flashing computer screens is one of the benefits of nature walks.She has collaborated on such projects at the Gothenburg Botanical Garden and has learned to use visual art and stories to help students engage.For adults with an interest, all three states within the Greater Yellowstone region have active native plant societies that offer field trips.For Susan Marsh and friends, a favorite part of late winter and early spring is to head out "botanizing" in places where hardy wildflowers emerge on windblown south-facing slopes after snowmelt.You stop to sketch or take a photo, or simply to wonder over how small delicate blooms can exist in one of the harshest sites in the valley.While we wait for our own culture to catch up, we can get out there and have a look at what’s coming up in the remnants of last fall’s leaves and the mud from melting snow. .

Urban Garden Center greens up Southwest Detroit with organic and

The shop is run by Isaac Warunek and Brian Johnson -- the building's owner -- and carries organic, indoor and hydroponic gardening supplies."We're a one-stop grow shop," says Warunek.The Urban Gardening Center is clearly poised to work with an expanding legal medical marijuana community in the state of Michigan, with licensed caregivers and patients receiving a 15% discount."Johnson has plenty of experience with running a business in Detroit: Burst, LLC, his sound company, has a long history in the city. .

How to Green Up Your Lawn

With mild iron deficiences, lawns will yellow, but with severe iron chlorosis, turfgrass can die.1 Iron and nitrogen deficiencies can often occur simultaneously.2.Recipe for the Perfect Lawn: Pennington's Ironite Formula If you've ever admired an ultra-green lawn and wondered how it could be so vibrant, most likely it has been fertilized with iron.Feeding your turf with a high-quality iron product, such as Pennington's Ironite Mineral Supplement 1-0-1, provides your lawn with soluble iron and other key ingredients.Sufficient nitrogen results in healthy, vigorous turfgrass growth.Sufficient nitrogen results in healthy, vigorous turfgrass growth.Ideal for summer application, Ironite Mineral Supplement 1-0-1 provides the greening a cool-season lawn may need during hot weather, without the stressful nutrient uptake of lawn fertilizer.AST and Advanced Soil Technology are trademarks of Encap, LLC.Feeding your turf with a high-quality iron product, such as Pennington's Ironite Mineral Supplement 1-0-1, provides your lawn with soluble iron and other key ingredients.It's for all soil types and is non-burning and non-staining*, unlike many other products on the market.Ideal for summer application, Ironite Mineral Supplement 1-0-1 provides the greening a cool-season lawn may need during hot weather, without the stressful nutrient uptake of lawn fertilizer.Always apply the product according to the directions on the package.A healthy, attractive lawn is within reach if you choose the right mineral supplement product to enhance your turf.AST and Advanced Soil Technology are trademarks of Encap, LLC1. .

#plantlove: Kadeesha Williams, Community Horticulturist & Urban

#plantlove: Kadeesha Williams, Community Horticulturist & Urban Agriculturist with Bronx Green-Up.As part of #plantlove at NYBG, we’re talking with people from all over the Garden about what inspires their passion for plants.I often think of my family’s community garden, Taqwa Community Farm here in the Bronx, as the place where I first had my experiences with plants. .

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