There are plenty of reasons why you might want to know whether kale, Brassica oleracea, the star of many a spring or fall veggie garden, is an annual or a perennial.As biennials, in their first season in your garden, kale plants will put all their energy into leaf production, growing bushy and lush under the right conditions.In USDA Hardiness Zones 7 to 10, biennial kale will continue to produce edible leaves throughout the winter.While in colder zones, these plants will go dormant during the winter – which means their leaves may die back, but their root systems will remain alive.While the biennial is focused on reproduction in the second year, its edible leaves will not be as tender, so they may be better suited for use in cooking than eating raw.Shortly after your plants start flowering, you’ll begin to see long, slender seed pods developing.ramosa) Named after a French naturalist, ‘Daubenton’ is a short-lived perennial variety that doesn’t go to seed – instead it is propagated through cuttings.Sometimes known as perpetual kale, the leaves of this green vegetable are mild and nutty tasting, less bitter than its biennial relatives.This cruciferous plant gets its vivid common name from its long stalks, which were traditionally dried and repurposed into – you guessed it – walking sticks.Hardy down to 10°F or lower and perennial in USDA Zones 6 to 9, ‘Walking Stick’ prefers neutral or alkaline soils.The proper harvesting of the leaves will encourage this plant to grow long stalks, which easily grow to 6-10 feet tall at maturity as a backyard garden plant, but can rise to a towering 20 feet tall with favorable conditions.The leaves of this plant were traditionally used as animal fodder, but seed saving enthusiasts have brought it back as a culinary oddity.It is hardy in Zones 6 to 9 and will grow well in coastal areas of the Pacific Northwest, where the cool summers are similar to those of its native habitat.If the young shoots and leaves from this plant are blanched while they are growing, or hidden from the sun to stop the process of photosynthesis, this gives them a pleasant nutty flavor when cooked. .

10 Tips for Growing Kale

Start spring seeds indoors approximately six weeks before the last frost to give plants a chance to mature before summer’s worst heat.Plant your crop again in the fall, six to eight weeks before the first expected frost — you can keep harvesting even after snowfall.Kale is buddy-buddy with beets, celery, cucumbers, herbs, onions, spinach, chard, and potatoes.Protect young plants with row covers like this to stave off flea beetles and provide a buffer against any unexpected temperature dips.Picking off unhealthy-looking leaves and keeping your plants well-fed with compost and water will also reduce insect damage in your vegetable garden,.Use straw or grass mulch at the base of your plants to keep the soil cool, conserve moisture, and make it easier for roots to feed.This content is created and maintained by a third party, and imported onto this page to help users provide their email addresses. .

Curly Kale: Extra Cold Tolerance, Highly-Productive Crops

Light requirements: Full sun is ideal, but plants yield in part shade.Frost-fighting plan: Established plants tolerate hard frosts (temperatures below 28º F) and produce new leaves all winter long in zones 7 to 10.Common issues: Watch out for cabbageworms, harlequin bugs, slugs, grasshoppers, and cabbage aphids.Storage: Refrigerate unwashed leaves in a lightly damp paper towel slipped into a very loosely closed plastic bag and store up to 5 days. .

Summer Glow Chopped Kale Salad

It’s crunchy, it’s creamy, it’s sweet & salty and it’s truly the perfect way to use your summer produce.All of those gorgeous veggies and fruits are tossed with my famous cilantro lime dressing for a wonderful meal prep lunch or side dish for your next BBQ.If you’re growing fresh produce or are a regular at your farmer’s market, this salad is the perfect way to use up all of the goods.juicy strawberries give the kale salad the perfect amount of sweetness.This chopped kale salad is super easy to customize with what’s in your fridge (or in your garden!).Choose your produce: I think blueberries or sliced peaches would be a great swap for strawberries, and you could even use finely chopped broccoli in place of the kale.I think blueberries or sliced peaches would be a great swap for strawberries, and you could even use finely chopped broccoli in place of the kale.on the other hand, I think this kale salad would be delicious with goat cheese or a sprinkle of grated parmesan.Add your fav crunch: feel free to use toasted sliced almonds in place of the pistachios.Delicious maple glazed salmon or grilled shrimp marinated in extra cilantro lime dressing would be amazing.Grilled shrimp — feel free to marinade in extra cilantro lime dressing!Kale can be a tough green to enjoy when it’s completely raw, so don’t forget these simple tips for prepping it!Use a sharp knife or salad chopper, or pulse the kale a few times in a food processor.Use a sharp knife or salad chopper, or pulse the kale a few times in a food processor.That’s right, you’ll want to let the dressed kale sit for at least 15 minutes before adding the other toppings so that it soaks up all of the flavor.I recommend making the dressing, chopping up the kale, cutting corn off of the cob and slicing the strawberries & red onion, then storing all of those separately in the refrigerator.This summer kale salad will stay good in the fridge for about 1-3 days in an airtight container.Summer Glow Chopped Kale Salad 5 from 7 votes Leave A Review Print Recipe Prep Time 30 minutes Total Time 30 minutes Serves 4 Beautiful summer kale salad tossed with fresh strawberries, sweet corn, creamy avocado and a delicious cilantro lime dressing.This fresh chopped kale salad is wonderful as-is and the perfect base for your favorite proteins!Finally add your strawberries, avocado, corn, feta crumbles, sliced red onion, pistachios to the bowl with the kale.My honey mustard chicken or maple glazed salmon would be amazing with this salad. .

EWG's 2021 Shopper's Guide to Pesticides in Produce

Nearly 70 percent of the non-organic fresh produce sold in the U.S. contains residues of potentially harmful chemical pesticides, according to EWG’s analysis of the latest test data from the federal Department of Agriculture.Kale remains in the third spot on our Dirty Dozen list, now joined by collard and mustard greens as being among the produce items with the highest pesticide load.In USDA’s most recent tests, the pesticide most frequently detected on collard and mustard greens – as is also the case with kale – is DCPA, sold under the brand name Dacthal.As they have in past years, peppers still contain concerning levels of acephate and chlorpyrifos – organophosphate insecticides that can harm children’s developing brains and are banned from use on some crops in the U.S. and entirely in the EU.Additionally, fresh items that are most contaminated, such as spinach, strawberries and other Dirty Dozen fruits and vegetables, still have high levels of pesticides in their frozen forms.High levels of glyphosate can be found in several grains and beans, such as oats and chickpeas, due to its increasing use as a pre-harvest drying agent.Notably, the USDA collected hundreds of samples of oats and chickpeas in 2019, and glyphosate, or Roundup – the most heavily used pesticide in the U.S. – is known to be used on these crops.More than 90 percent of samples of strawberries, apples, cherries, spinach, nectarines, and leafy greens tested positive for residues of two or more pesticides.Researchers from Harvard University used USDA test data and methods similar to ours to classify produce as having high or low pesticides.Remarkably, their lists of high and low pesticide crops largely overlap with our Dirty Dozen and Clean Fifteen.Fertility studies' classification of pesticide residues High pesticide residue score Apples, apple sauces, blueberries, grapes, green beans, leafy greens, pears, peaches, potatoes, plums, spinach, strawberries, raisins, sweet peppers, tomatoes, winter squash Low to moderate pesticide residue score Apple juice, avocados, bananas, beans, broccoli, cabbage, cantaloupe, carrots, cauliflower, celery, corn, eggplant, grapefruit, lentils, lettuce, onions, oranges, orange juice, peas, prunes, summer squash, sweet potatoes, tofu, tomato sauces, zucchini.From these studies, it is unclear whether the positive effects associated with organic foods are directly and exclusively caused by lower pesticide exposures.People who eat higher amounts of organic produce tend to be more health-conscious in general, making it difficult to determine the exact cause of an observed health outcome.An EWG investigation published last year found that for most pesticides, the EPA does not apply additional restrictions to safeguard children’s health.Yet, as our investigation found, this tenfold margin of safety was not included in the EPA’s allowable limits for almost 90 percent of the most common pesticides.However, based on the final rule released in 2018, these labels may be difficult to interpret, with confusing terms like “bioengineered.” Until the law takes effect, consumers who want to avoid GMOs may choose organic zucchini, yellow squash, sweet corn, papaya, apples and potatoes.The federal government’s role in protecting our health, farm workers and the environment from harmful pesticides is in urgent need of reform.The USDA states that a goal of its tests is to provide data on pesticide residues in food, with a focus on those most likely eaten by infants and children.The pesticide registration process requires companies to submit safety data, proposed uses and product labels for approval by the EPA.The Shopper’s Guide ranks pesticide contamination on 46 popular fruits and vegetables based on an analysis of more than 46,075 samples taken by the USDA and the FDA.The USDA test program includes both domestically grown and imported produce, and sometimes ranks differ on the basis of origin.NOTE: As all Americans continue to adapt to the reality of daily life during the spread of the coronavirus pandemic, it is important to know that there is no evidence people can be exposed through food. .

9 Vegetables That Grow Quickly

Arugula has a slightly peppery flavor that makes it delicious in a salad or as an alternative to basil pesto.Arugula is also sometimes called rocket—not because of how quickly it grows, but because the name is derived from the Italian word for the green, ruchetta. .

Ornamental Cabbage and Kale, Brassica oleracea – Wisconsin

Ornamental cabbages and kales do not tolerate summer heat and plants set out in spring will likely have bolted or declined in appearance, so it is necessary to either start from seed in mid-summer or purchase transplants for a good fall show.Seeds must be sown and young plants kept under cool conditions to thrive, so this is a project best suited for a greenhouse where the temperature can be controlled.The white, pink, or red pigments really begin to show with frost and cold weather, getting great, vivid colors below 50°F.They look beautiful in the front of a border, especially when combined with perennials that are at their peak in the fall, such as little bluestem grass (Schizacrium scoparium), tall, dark-leaved sedums or asters.‘Chidori’ Series – a mounded kale type with purple foliage with extremely curly leaf margins and a cream white or deep magenta center.‘Nagoya’ Series – round with heavily crinkled leaves and a tight rosette center that ranges in color from fuchsia pink, lavender, yellow green to creamy white.‘Osaka’ Series – very fast growing and compact cabbage type with bluish-green, semi-waved leaves and a pink, red, or white center.‘Tokyo’ Series – nearly perfectly rounded cabbage type with smooth, blue-green outer leaves and soft pink, red, or white centers. .

How to Grow Kale and Collards from Seeds – West Coast Seeds

Kale contains higher levels of beta-carotene than any other green vegetable, and is also high in vitamin C and calcium.They are perfect for juicing and a long-lasting green that stores well, delicious in crunchy salads.Continue reading below for some expert tips on how to grow kale and collards.Direct sow in early spring to mid-summer for summer to winter harvests.Kale likes well-drained, fertile soil high in organic matter.Protect from cabbage moths and other insect pests with floating row cover.Prevent disease with a strict 4-year crop rotation, avoiding planting Brassicas in the same spot more than once every four years.All Brassicas benefit from chamomile, dill, mint, rosemary, and sage. .

Make Room for Kale - How to Grow Kale

Sophia Bielenberg is an avid gardener and has been working at organic farms and nurseries as well as taking pictures of (and writing about) plants for over a decade.She especially likes to grow kale, tomatoes, succulents, potted citrus and Venus fly traps (which produce beautiful flowers if you're patient!).Each year the farmers at High Mowing Organic Seeds plant new varieties in side-by-side trials with classic favorites.The trials data, combined with information from growers and breeders, provide a more complete picture of a variety, including what conditions help it thrive.In situations where space is limited, such as for gardeners growing kale in raised beds or large containers, look for varieties described as compact and productive.These will produce lots of greens without taking up too much real estate, and are less likely than big plants to become stressed by competition for nutrients, light and water.Try Dwarf Green Curled, a high-yielding, cold-tolerant variety that grows to about 18" tall, similar to Ripbor but with a slightly smaller habit.Another great option is Curly Roja, a compact 16-18" plant with purple-green leaves — similar to Redbor, a longtime favorite.If you're excited about growing microgreens (leaves harvested 12 to 20 days after planting in trays), I heartily recommend Red Russian.The frilled leaf contrasts with the miniature curls of Green Kale, and the combination is a striking and delicious addition to salads.Two weeks before your last frost, start some Meadowlark curly kale and heat-tolerant Lacinato for summer salads and early fall soups. .

How to Freeze Greens - Bon Appétit

If you're suffering from salad fatigue, or just can't eat another plate of sautéed spinach, we've got good news: Leafy greens are one of the easiest things to preserve.You can't preserve tender lettuce, but hardier greens like Swiss chard and kale lend themselves perfectly to freezing.No matter where you got your greens—farmers' market, farm stand, CSA, grocery store, your garden—it's important to rinse them clean of any dirt or (eek!).Once the water's boiling, add the clean greens and use tongs or a spoon to submerge them completely underwater.Using tongs or a wire spider strainer, transfer the greens to a large bowl or pot of ice water. .

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