The key to successful spot coloring is to select plants in four-inch containers or larger, rather than the more economical ponypaks or flats, because there isn’t enough time for younger plants to grow and then flower.Although primroses are really perennials, here they’re treated as annuals and replaced with sun plants in late spring.The Julian primrose is a small plant, with colors ranging from white, pink and blue to hot orange and yellow.P. Obconica has longer stems with white, pink, lavender or reddish purple flowers.A plant that is sometimes overlooked but makes a cheerful addition to the winter garden is Bellis perennis, better known as English Daisy.By late February or early March, ranunculus plants should be widely available at local nurseries.Especially noteworthy are the different varieties of ornamental kale.The leaves, which can be frilly or crinkly, depending on the variety, are richly vibrant in hues of reddish purple, pink or white.Some plants good for adding instant winter color to a garden:. .

Cabbage

Leafy vegetable in the flowering plant family Brassicaceae.Cabbage, comprising several cultivars of Brassica oleracea, is a leafy green, red (purple), or white (pale green) biennial plant grown as an annual vegetable crop for its dense-leaved heads.oleracea), and belongs to the "cole crops" or brassicas, meaning it is closely related to broccoli and cauliflower (var.Cabbage is prone to several nutrient deficiencies, as well as to multiple pests, and bacterial and fungal diseases.Cabbage was most likely domesticated somewhere in Europe before 1000 BC, although savoys were not developed until the 16th century AD.By the Middle Ages, cabbage had become a prominent part of European cuisine.Cabbage.Cabbage (Brassica oleracea or B. oleracea var.All of these developed from the wild cabbage B. oleracea var.oleracea, also called colewort or field cabbage.This original species evolved over thousands of years into those seen today, as selection resulted in cultivars having different characteristics, such as large heads for cabbage, large leaves for kale and thick stems with flower buds for broccoli."Cabbage" was originally used to refer to multiple forms of B.

oleracea, including those with loose or non-existent heads.[5] A related species, Brassica rapa, is commonly named Chinese, napa or celery cabbage, and has many of the same uses.[5] Many European and Asiatic names for cabbage are derived from the Celto-Slavic root cap or kap, meaning "head".The cabbage inflorescence , which appears in the plant's second year of growth, features white or yellow flowers, each with four perpendicularly arranged petals.Plants are 40–60 cm (16–24 in) tall in their first year at the mature vegetative stage, and 1.5–2.0 m (4 ft 11 in–6 ft 7 in) tall when flowering in the second year.[13] Heads average between 0.5 and 4 kg (1 and 8 lb), with fast-growing, earlier-maturing varieties producing smaller heads.[9] About 90 percent of the root mass is in the upper 20–30 cm (8–12 in) of soil; some lateral roots can penetrate up to 2 m (6 ft 7 in) deep.[9] The initial leaves form a rosette shape comprising 7 to 15 leaves, each measuring 25–35 cm (10–14 in) by 20–30 cm (8–12 in);[13] after this, leaves with shorter petioles develop and heads form through the leaves cupping inward.Many shapes, colors and leaf textures are found in various cultivated varieties of cabbage.Leaf types are generally divided between crinkled-leaf, loose-head savoys and smooth-leaf firm-head cabbages, while the color spectrum includes white and a range of greens and purples.The appearance of the cabbage head has been given importance in selective breeding, with varieties being chosen for shape, color, firmness and other physical characteristics.[32] The ancient Greeks had some varieties of cabbage, as mentioned by Theophrastus, although whether they were more closely related to today's cabbage or to one of the other Brassica crops is unknown.The Greeks were convinced that cabbages and grapevines were inimical, and that cabbage planted too near the vine would impart its unwelcome odor to the grapes; this Mediterranean sense of antipathy survives today.[39] Pliny the Elder listed seven varieties, including Pompeii cabbage, Cumae cabbage and Sabellian cabbage.[5] During the 16th century, German gardeners developed the savoy cabbage.Cultivation [ edit ].[14] Seedlings typically emerge in about 4–6 days from seeds planted 13 mm (1⁄2 in) deep at a soil temperature between 20 and 30 °C (68 and 86 °F).Some varieties of cabbage have been developed for ornamental use; these are generally called "flowering cabbage".They do not produce heads and feature purple or green outer leaves surrounding an inner grouping of smaller leaves in white, red, or pink.[14] Early varieties of cabbage take about 70 days from planting to reach maturity, while late varieties take about 120 days.The outer leaves are trimmed, and any diseased, damaged, or necrotic leaves are removed.[59] Delays in harvest can result in the head splitting as a result of expansion of the inner leaves and continued stem growth.Savoy – Characterized by crimped or curly leaves, mild flavor and tender texture [24].Green – Light to dark green, slightly pointed heads.White, also called Dutch – Smooth, pale green leaves[24].Some sources only delineate three cultivars: savoy, red and white, with spring greens and green cabbage being subsumed under the last.Cultivation problems [ edit ].Rhizoctonia solani causes the post-emergence disease wirestem, resulting in killed seedlings ("damping-off"), root rot or stunted growth and smaller heads.Pests include root-knot nematodes and cabbage maggots, which produce stunted and wilted plants with yellow leaves; aphids, which induce stunted plants with curled and yellow leaves; harlequin cabbage bugs, which cause white and yellow leaves; thrips, which lead to leaves with white-bronze spots; striped flea beetles, which riddle leaves with small holes; and caterpillars, which leave behind large, ragged holes in leaves.[64] The caterpillar stage of the "small cabbage white butterfly" (Pieris rapae), commonly known in the United States as the "imported cabbage worm", is a major cabbage pest in most countries.[67] In India, the diamondback moth has caused losses up to 90 percent in crops that were not treated with insecticide.Production [ edit ].Local market and storage [ edit ].Consumption [ edit ].Food preparation [ edit ].[77] In the United States, cabbage is used primarily for the production of coleslaw, followed by market use and sauerkraut production.Nutrients and phytochemicals [ edit ].[80] Cabbage is also a moderate source (10–19% DV) of vitamin B6 and folate, with no other nutrients having significant content per 100-gram serving (table).[81] Studies on cruciferous vegetables, including cabbage, include whether they may lower the risk against colon cancer.[82] Cabbage is a source of indole-3-carbinol, a chemical under basic research for its possible properties.Herbalism [ edit ].[85] The ancient Roman, Pliny the Elder, described both culinary and medicinal properties of the vegetable.[91] Two outbreaks of E. coli in the United States have been linked to cabbage consumption.References [ edit ]. .

Tips for Success With Vegetables

To get the most out of this technique, plan the garden carefully and study seed catalogs since there is wide variation in maturity dates among the vegetables of the same type.By July it is finished, and I follow with seeds of Swiss chard, beets, and bush beans, which mature by September.If a vegetable will not mature until the end of July, sow seeds of a succession crop in late June, right beside the row.This kind of intensive culture produces maximum harvest, but it requires a soil kept in topnotch condition by yearly applications of organic matter. .

Edible Landscaping

Question: Every year I grow kale in my North Carolina garden and it tastes chewy and like grass when I eat it.What's the key to growing good tasting kale?Question: I'm looking for an edible, evergreen foundation shrub for my Portland, Oregon home.This native Northwest shrub is hardy to USDA zone 6 and grows up to 4 feet tall and wide in full sun, so fits well under a window or near a door.Since it's an evergreen the small leaves hold through the winter making for a beautiful four season landscape shrub.Another Northwest native, it produces yellow flowers in spring and blue-black berries by fall.See more about him at Gardening With Charlie. .

Small-Space, Little-Work (Well, Almost) Vegetable Gardening By

Peter Singer noted this when he wrote in Animal Liberation, "Without meat to deaden the palate we experience an extra delight in fresh vegetables taken straight from the ground.".Life in the '90s, though, means that your back 40 is probably a forty-foot yard and that you will have to squeeze your agricultural chores into an already overbooked lifestyle.Your mini-garden won't make you food self-sufficient, but it will put plenty of fresh vegetables on your table for much of the year.If you want the nutritional and flavor advantages that just-picked food can provide, first select a sunny, well-drained, and fertile site for your garden.You can improve drainage and fertility, but only Nature can supply the abundant sunshine vegetables must have to thrive.You may be able to let the sunshine in by trimming shrubs or tree branches, but if something immovable (like a building) is casting shade, look for another garden spot.The simplest way to improve drainage is to build raised beds for your plants, which is easier than it sounds.If you are turning a patch of lawn into a vegetable garden, be prepared for some hard work the first year.You may have trouble with destructive insects, like wireworms and white grubs, that live in grassy soil.You should have an inexpensive, but essential, soil test done by your county Extension Service (probably in the phone book under United States Government - Agriculture Department), or you can buy your own kit.The test will tell you how acid or alkaline your soil is and what to do about it, as well as levels of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium (NPK in gardening jargon).If your plot sits surrounded by lawn, make it four feet deep and work it from both sides.This wide dividing row will allow you to sit or kneel comfortably as you tend or pick the four-foot sections.Your goal is to space the rows so the top growth of the plants will touch and form a canopy.If you are using close spacing, remember to maintain soil fertility by adding plenty of organic matter.As for what to plant, choose vegetables that 1) you like; 2) produce abundantly in a small space; and 3) taste much better when absolutely fresh.Plants that produce the most in the least space include leafy greens (like lettuce, swiss chard, and kale), root vegetables (carrots, beets, and rutabagas), zucchini, staked tomatoes, broccoli, and green beans.Just-picked green peas (that need shelling) and sweet corn taste scrumptious fresh, but yield poorly in relation to the room they require.You can save space in your vegetable garden by growing bell peppers and eggplants as ornamentals among your flowers.Crops like green beans, cucumbers, zucchini, and transplants of peppers, eggplant, and tomatoes should go in after danger of frost.Park Seed Co., Cokesbury Road, Greenwood, SC 29647, carries some varieties specially bred to save space. .

Enhance Your Lawn With Foodscaping

There are a lot of words to describe different ways of growing edible plants on a family scale – row gardening, food forest, permaculture, raised beds, and so on.Perhaps the easiest one of all is foodscaping, which just describes making edible plants a part of your existing or developing ornamental landscape design.Lemongrass or clumps of grain such as barley, wheat, oats, rye, or even rice can substitute for ornamental grasses and provide material for crafts or a harvest for feeding birds or your family.Red Russian and Lacinato kale and all kinds of lettuce are beautiful at any stage of their development and leaves can be harvested without greatly affecting the ornamental value of the plant.Fennel is a beautiful feathery perennial that is easy to grow, tastes good, and provides a larval host for black swallowtail butterflies.Cilantro is a cool season herb which blooms as weather warms in delicate airy white, providing nectar for bees and seeds for next year’s crop.If you have a lot of space, Seminole pumpkins are a great ground cover choice with large interesting leaves.And the textures of heading grains, carrots, fennel, and dill provide wonderful variety to any landscape.Brie Arthur, the foodscaping guru, spoke at the last Florida Master Gardener Volunteer Conference and inspired many of us to expand our horizons when it comes to growing food.Janis Piotrowski is a Master Gardner Volunteer with the UF/IFAS Extension Leon County, an Equal Opportunity Institution. .

Irradiance levels affect growth parameters and carotenoid pigments

The eluent was returned to 100% A for 10 min to re-equlibrate the column prior to the next injection.Added to the 0.50 ml reduced sample was 2.50 ml of MeOH and 2.00 ml of THF, and then the combined sample solution was vortexed.The kale plants were grown for 3 weeks, while the spinach plants were grown for 4 weeks for each experimental replication.Six containers were blocked together for an average irradiance treatment level (PAR) of 125 ± 30, 200 ± 50, 335 ± 60, 460 ± 40, and 620 ± 100 µmol m −2 s −1 .Deionized water was added daily to maintain 30 l in each container and the complete nutrient solution was replaced every week throughout the experiment to refresh the solution to the initial nutrient concentrations.The concentration of spinach leaf tissue L ( F = 4.6, P = 0.007) and β-carotene ( F = 3.4, P = 0.023) measure on a DM basis responded to increases in irradiance levels ( Table 5 ).The trend in L accumulation in the spinach as a function of dry mass was quadratic [L DM = 1.13 + 0.001 (PAR) – 0.00001 (PAR) 2 , r 2 = 0.33] in response to increasing irradiance levels.Spinach leaf tissue percentage DM increased from 6.8 to 7.7% as the irradiance increased from 125 to 620 µmol m −2 s −1 ( Table 5 ).Chlorophyll pigments concentrations in the leaf tissues of kale and spinach were much higher when compared to carotenoid concentrations.Concentrations of chl a ( F = 4.1, P = 0.011) and chl b ( F = 4.1, P = 0.011) pigments in kale leaf tissues differed among irradiance treatments.Similar to the carotenoid pigments, maximum chl pigment accumulation in kale leaf tissues occurred at 335 µmol m −2 s −1 , with chl a at 247.3 mg 100 g −1 and chl b at 59.0 mg 100 g −1 ( Table 4 ).Kale leaf tissue chl a and chl b accumulation both followed a quadratic trend [chl a = 68.3 + 0.75 (PAR) – 0.0008 (PAR) 2 , r 2 = 0.32; chl b = 16.6 + 0.19 (PAR) – 0.0002 (PAR) 2 , r 2 = 0.36] in response to increases in irradiance levels.Similarly, β-carotene accumulation in the kale leaf tissues responded significantly to irradiance treatments ( F = 4.77, P = 0.005).Kale leaf tissue β-carotene increased, then decreased [β-carotene = 2.29 + 0.036 (PAR) – 0.00004 (PAR) 2 , r 2 = 0.30] in response to irradiance treatments.Kale leaf tissue K decreased [K = 5.0 − 0.002 (PAR), r 2 = 0.32] in response to increases in irradiance levels.Spinach leaf tissue Ca ( F = 2.9, P = 0.043) and Fe ( F = 3.8, P = 0.014) accumulation were both significantly affected by irradiance level ( Tables 2,3) .Shoot tissue DM was significantly influenced by irradiance treatment for both ‘Winterbor’ kale ( F = 26.6, P = 0.001) and ‘Melody’ spinach ( F = 9.9, P = 0.001).Average kale DM increased from 1.2 to 6.9 g per plant as irradiance treatment increased from 125 to 620 µmol m −2 s −1 ( Table 1 ).Spinach increased in DM from 2.5 to 6.5 g plant −1 as the irradiance increased from 125 to 620 µmol m −2 s −1 ( Table 1 ).A significant linear increase in DM was found for the spinach [DM = 2.67 + 0.01 (PAR), r 2 = 0.46] as the irradiance levels increased.Shoot tissue FM was significantly influenced by irradiance treatment for both ‘Winterbor’ kale ( F = 26.5, P = 0.001) and ‘Melody’ spinach ( F = 14.4, P = 0.001).Average kale FM increased from 15.3 to 74.3 g per plant as irradiance treatment increased from 125 to 620 µmol m −2 s −1 ( Table 1 ).Results from the current study showed linear increases in both FM and DM as the light irradiance levels increased from 125 to 620 µmol m−2 s−1.The light saturation point can explain why both FM and DM for spinach and kale increased steadily and then levelled as irradiance treatments increased in the current study.In our study, the kale concentrations of Ca, Cu, K and Mn all increased at low irradiance while the P concentrations decreased.The spinach mineral concentrations were not significantly different for most irradiance levels, but both Ca and Fe decreased at low light levels.Behera and Choudhury (2003) results are very similar to our results, where the carotenoid and chl concentration increased linearly for kale from 125 to 300 µmol m−2 s−1 and for spinach from 125 to 200 µmol m−2 s−1.At irradiance levels above 300 mol m−2 s−1 for the kale and 200 µmol m−2 s−1 for the spinach, the carotenoid and chl levels start to decrease and remain fairly constant after 400 µmol m−2 s−1 for both species.When spinach carotenoid data are reported on a DM basis, there were significant decreases in both L and β-carotene concentrations. .

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