Indian lettuce is medium to large in size, averaging 2-10 centimeters in diameter, and the leaves are long, oblong, and flat in shape.Indian lettuce is cultivated on a small scale in Asia for local consumption and is grown in grassy lowlands in humid, tropical regions.Indian lettuce pairs well with cucumber, tomato, kale, lentils, chickpeas, mango, apple, cranberry, cumin seeds, yellow mustard seeds, turmeric, paprika, ginger, cilantro, mint, parsley, lime wedges, lemon, yogurt, chicken, pork, minced fish, and tofu.It will keep for a couple of days when stored in the refrigerator, but it is recommended for immediate use to preserve quality.In China, Indian lettuce is used as a digestive aid and is consumed as a tonic to help reduce symptoms of coughs, anxiety, and insomnia. .


In addition to its main use as a leafy green, it has also gathered religious and medicinal significance over centuries of human consumption.Generally grown as a hardy annual, lettuce is easily cultivated, although it requires relatively low temperatures to prevent it from flowering quickly.It can be plagued by numerous nutrient deficiencies, as well as insect and mammal pests, and fungal and bacterial diseases.Although this trait can be a problem to home gardeners who attempt to save seeds, biologists have used it to broaden the gene pool of cultivated lettuce varieties.Contaminated lettuce is often a source of bacterial, viral, and parasitic outbreaks in humans, including E. coli and Salmonella.[8] Lettuce is closely related to several Lactuca species from southwest Asia; the closest relationship is to L.

serriola, an aggressive weed common in temperate and subtropical zones in much of the world.The Romans referred to lettuce as lactuca (lac meaning "dairy" in Latin), an allusion to the white substance, latex, exuded by cut stems.[11] The current word lettuce, originally from Middle English, came from the Old French letues or laitues, which derived from the Roman name.Lettuces have a wide range of shapes and textures, from the dense heads of the iceberg type to the notched, scalloped, frilly or ruffly leaves of leaf varieties.Some varieties, especially those found in the United States and Western Europe, have long, narrow taproots and a small set of secondary roots.Depending on the variety and time of year, lettuce generally lives 65–130 days from planting to harvesting.Because lettuce that flowers (through the process known as "bolting") becomes bitter and unsaleable, plants grown for consumption are rarely allowed to grow to maturity.Once plants move past the edible stage, they develop flower stalks up to 1 m (3 ft 3 in) high with small yellow blossoms.[18] Like other members of the tribe Cichorieae, lettuce inflorescences (also known as flower heads or capitula) are composed of multiple florets, each with a modified calyx called a pappus (which becomes the feathery "parachute" of the fruit), a corolla of five petals fused into a ligule or strap, and the reproductive parts.[16][19] The ovaries form compressed, obovate (teardrop-shaped) dry fruits that do not open at maturity, measuring 3 to 4 mm long.Each fruit contains one seed, which can be white, yellow, gray or brown depending on the variety of lettuce.The domestication of lettuce over the centuries has resulted in several changes through selective breeding: delayed bolting, larger seeds, larger leaves and heads, better taste and texture, a lower latex content, and different leaf shapes and colors.[20] Scientific research into the genetic modification of lettuce is ongoing, with over 85 field trials taking place between 1992 and 2005 in the European Union and the United States to test modifications allowing greater herbicide tolerance, greater resistance to insects and fungi and slower bolting patterns.[10] Lettuce was considered a sacred plant of the reproduction god Min, and was carried during his festivals and placed near his images.The cultivated variety appears to have been about 75 cm (30 in) tall and resembled a large version of the modern romaine lettuce.Due to its short lifespan after harvest, lettuce was originally sold relatively close to where it was grown.The early 20th century saw the development of new packing, storage and shipping technologies that improved the lifespan and transportability of lettuce and resulted in a significant increase in availability.[26] Lettuces meant for the cutting of individual leaves are generally planted straight into the garden in thick rows.Heading varieties of lettuces are commonly started in flats, then transplanted to individual spots, usually 20 to 36 cm (7.9 to 14.2 in) apart, in the garden after developing several leaves.Lettuce spaced farther apart receives more sunlight, which improves color and nutrient quantities in the leaves.[31] Plants in hot areas that are provided partial shade during the hottest part of the day will bolt more slowly.Lettuce quickly degrades when stored with fruit such as apples, pears and bananas that release the ripening agent ethylene gas.[18] This propensity for crossing, however, has led to breeding programs using closely related species in Lactuca, such as L. serriola, L.

saligna, and L. virosa, to broaden the available gene pool.Summercrisp – Also called Batavian or French crisp, this lettuce is midway between the crisphead and leaf types.Celtuce/Stem – This type is grown for its seedstalk, rather than its leaves, and is used in Asian cooking, primarily Chinese, as well as stewed and creamed dishes.[41] Lettuce contains several defensive compounds, including sesquiterpene lactones, and other natural phenolics such as flavonol and glycosides, which help to protect it against pests.Fungal diseases include powdery mildew and downy mildew, which cause leaves to mold and die and bottom rot, lettuce drop and gray mold, which cause entire plants to rot and collapse.[18] Weeds can also be an issue, as cultivated lettuce is generally not competitive with them, especially when directly seeded into the ground.By the end of the century, other types began to regain popularity and eventually made up over 30 percent of production.In the early 21st century, bagged salad products increased in the lettuce market, especially in the US where innovative packaging and shipping methods prolonged freshness.Post-Roman Europe continued the tradition of poaching lettuce, mainly with large romaine types, as well as the method of pouring a hot oil and vinegar mixture over the leaves.Lettuce leaves can also be found in soups, sandwiches and wraps, while the stems are eaten both raw and cooked.The consumption of lettuce in China developed differently from in Western countries, due to health risks and cultural aversion to eating raw leaves; Chinese "salads" are composed of cooked vegetables and are served hot or cold.Stem lettuce, widely consumed in China, is eaten either raw or cooked, the latter primarily in soups and stir-frys.[32] With the exception of the iceberg variety, lettuce is also a good source (10–19% DV) of folate and iron (table).Food-borne pathogens that can survive on lettuce include Listeria monocytogenes, the causative agent of listeriosis, which multiplies in storage.[52] Lettuce has been linked to numerous outbreaks of the bacteria E. coli O157:H7 and Shigella; the plants were most likely contaminated through contact with animal feces.[53] A 2007 study determined that the vacuum cooling method, especially prevalent in the California lettuce industry, increased the uptake and survival rates of E. coli O157:H7.In addition to its usual purpose as an edible leafy vegetable, lettuce has had a number of uses in ancient (and even some more modern) folk medicine and religious symbolism.For example, ancient Egyptians thought lettuce to be a symbol of sexual prowess[46] and a promoter of love and childbearing in women.[56] In contrast, the ancient Greeks connected the plant with male impotency,[10] and served it during funerals (probably due to its role in the myth of Adonis' death), and British women in the 19th century believed it would cause infertility and sterility.Romaine lettuce is one of the symbolic items on the Jewish Passover Seder plate as a bitter herb (maror).Some American settlers claimed that smallpox could be prevented through the ingestion of lettuce,[56] and an Iranian belief suggested consumption of the seeds when afflicted with typhoid.


Indian lettuce (Lactuca indica)

Indian lettuce, milkweed, wild lettuce (En); lechuga de la India (Sp); 山萵苣 (Cn).Leaves and tender stems with slight bitterness are used fresh as salad, boiled, steamed or stir-fried, or in soup. .

Indian lettuce Definition & Meaning

: a perennial Asian wild lettuce with a branching cluster of small yellow flowers and long thin leaves that are sometimes eaten raw or cooked. .

5 Interesting Types of Lettuce

Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) is a popular leafy vegetable in the daisy family.While it’s grown worldwide, China produces the greatest volume — upwards of 66% of the global supply (1, 2 ).Lettuce is not only a major ingredient in salads but also often added to various dishes, such as wraps, soups, and sandwiches.Although romaine and iceberg are the most common types, many varieties exist — each with their own unique flavors and nutritional properties.Crisphead lettuce is also a moderate source of phenolic compounds, which are antioxidants that help fight oxidative stress and inflammation in your body (9).Best ways to eat it Crisphead lettuce has a crunchy texture and mild flavor that lends itself to salads and sandwiches.To keep crisphead lettuce fresh, refrigerate it in a sealable bag with a damp paper towel.This nutrient acts as a potent antioxidant and is vital for skin, eye, and immune health ( 11 , 12 , 13 ).What’s more, red romaine boasts high levels of anthocyanins, which give certain vegetables and fruits a reddish-purple color.It has a slightly sweeter, bolder flavor than crisphead, which adds a mild burst to salads and sandwiches.Although romaine works well for soups and stir-fries, you should add it near the end of cooking to prevent it from getting too soggy.summary Romaine’s long, crisp leaves are popular for Caesar salads.These protect your eyes from macular degeneration, a condition that can result in partial vision loss ( 18 ).Best ways to eat it Butterhead lettuce adds a mild, sweet flavor to dishes.Furthermore, it works well in egg-salad or tuna sandwiches and serves as a great tortilla replacement for wraps.Store butterhead lettuce in a sealable bag in the fridge for 2–3 days, keeping the leaves dry to prevent wilting.However, red leaf lettuce contains much higher levels of phenolic compounds.In particular, its anthocyanins and quercetin act as potent antioxidants that protect your body from free radical damage (9, 22 , 23 ).Best ways to eat it Leaf lettuce’s crisp, mild flavor lends itself to salads and sandwiches.To store leaf lettuce, pat it dry and keep it in a plastic bag or storage container.Moreover, it’s a part of an enzyme called superoxide dismutase, which helps decrease oxidative stress in your body ( 25 , 26 ).Best ways to eat it Stem lettuce isn’t widespread, but you might be able to find it at international grocery stores.You can add it raw to salads, cook it in stir-fries and soups, or spiralize it into crunchy veggie noodles.Store stem lettuce in the refrigerator in an airtight bag or container for 2–3 days. .

Weeknight Meal Idea: Indian Spiced Ground Chicken Lettuce Wraps

Indian Spiced Ground Chicken Lettuce Wraps — a fast, exceptionally flavorful weeknight meal (or even a make-ahead office lunch).Taking a respite from the land of retail coverage (ICYMI: NSale #Dressingroom Selfies // 7 Anniversary Sale Finds Styled (With My Existing Wardrobe) // 5 Anniversary Sale Dresses Styled for Day + Night — phew!).My love affair with lettuce wraps started with the Chinese banquet pork-and-dried-oyster classic I looked forward to at family celebrations as a kiddo, and mainstreamed into P.F.I remember making a pretty close knock-off on repeat in college (lettuce wraps, as it turns out, are cheap homemade eats on a co-ed budget; P.F.And then a few years ago, I took the same classic flavors and veggified them with baked tofu and a crunchy topping of macadamia nuts.But a few weeks ago, Lana and I were reading one of her fave books, What’s on Your Plate, and somewhere between explaining to her the phenomenal glory of samosas and chicken tikka masala and my own favorite childhood meals, the idea for these lettuce wraps was born.(Quick note: I’m calling them Indian Spiced Ground Chicken Lettuce Wraps due to their inspired flavor profile, but I’m not claiming these are authentically anything but delicious.).Warm garam masala, cumin and turmeric meet with sweet, dried apricots, tender peas and creamy coconut milk — all tucked into buttery leaves of lettuce with cool sliced cucumbers.They’re thoroughly spiced but not spicy (Lana happily devoured them), crazy flavorful, ready in under 30 mins and totally addicting.The filling reheats like a dream, too, so if you were inclined to pack these up for the office with a few leaves of lettuce on the side, you’d be in pretty rad shape come lunchtime.To keep things even simpler, we almost always have boneless, skinless chicken thighs on hand in the fridge or freezer.Alternatively, you can, of course, use store bought ground chicken, but if you’ve got an extra 5 minutes and a halfway decent food processor (we use this incredibly not-fancy 7-Cup Cuisinart), I love the versatility of being able to “grind” your own at a moment’s notice.And while we’re talking swaps, this filling is just as at-home tucked into a tortilla or piled atop whole grains in a bowl format, too.Add crushed garlic, grated ginger, garam masala, tumeric, cumin, pink salt and plenty of freshly ground black pepper.Add seasoned chicken to onions and peppers and brown until cooked through, breaking up into pieces with a spoon, about 5 mins.Not only are they ideal for some of my favorite fast weeknight recipes, but they make excellent ground chicken when cut into cubes and pulsed briefly in the food processor.And if you feel so inclined, pop over to my personal food + lifestyle blog, The Pig & Quill, where I share salty scribblings from my kitchen and home life. .

Wild Lettuce (Lactuca virosa): Pain Relief, Benefits and Risks

For centuries, people have used natural remedies, such as medicinal plants, to treat a variety of symptoms, including pain.Though wild lettuce may have several health benefits, many people are unaware of the adverse side effects that can occur from ingesting this plant.Wild lettuce (Lactuca virosa) is grown in various areas of the world, including Iran, Austria, France, Germany, and Scotland.Historically, doctors used wild lettuce as a pain reliever and a treatment for conditions such as whooping cough, with research studies on its use dating as far back as 1815 ( 3 ).Summary The extract of wild lettuce seeds, leaves, and sap are added to a number of natural products claiming to relieve a variety of health concerns, such as pain and anxiety.Lactucarium contains lactucin and lactucopicrin, bitter substances that act on the central nervous system to produce pain-relieving and sedative effects ( 4 ).These compounds are considered sesquiterpene lactones, a group of beneficial substances most concentrated in plants belonging to the Asteraceae family — such as lettuce, calendula, and chicory ( 5 ).While many natural healthcare companies and homeopathic websites promote wild lettuce as a pain treatment, scientific evidence is lacking.Though you can find information on the alleged healing qualities of wild lettuce on many alternative medicine websites, there’s currently no scientific research to support its use to treat any of the above conditions.Studies do show that other types of sesquiterpene lactones from the Asteraceae family are effective in reducing inflammation, which may aid certain conditions, such as arthritis ( 7 ).Until more research is completed on the health effects of wild lettuce, the claims stated by certain websites and supplement companies can’t be substantiated.Summary Though other types of sesquiterpene lactones from the Asteraceae plant family possess anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, it’s unknown whether wild lettuce delivers the same benefits.Numerous studies reveal that CBD oil may help reduce inflammation, relieve chronic pain, decrease anxiety, and improve sleep quality ( 12 ).Other evidence-based, natural ways to help relieve pain include yoga, exercise, meditation, acupuncture, and heat therapy ( 15 , 16 , 17 ). .

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