Vegetables, drinking water, and preserved meats may contain sodium nitrite (NaNO 2 ), which causes liver disease by inducing oxidative stress.Phytochemicals are highly recommended as an alternative to synthetic drugs and affordable medicines to treat liver disease because they have fewer or no side effects.Therefore, this study aims to determine the antioxidant and hepatoprotective potential of red okra fruit ethanol extract against NaNO 2 -induced liver damage.The activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and catalase) significantly increased in the groups treated (P2–P4) with ethanol extract of red okra ( ).Then, it led to a restoration of the histological structure compared to exposed mice (SN), as the pathological scores decreased significantly in the P3 and P4 groups ( ), as well as the number of the necrotic and swollen liver cells was reduced.Intrinsic and extrinsic factors such as being born with metabolic defects, malnutrition, viral infection, and exposure to toxic substances  may produce reactive nitrogen species/reactive oxygen species (RNS/ROS), facilitating liver disease illness.It plays various roles in metabolism, secretion of wastes, and elimination of unneeded materials from the body; hence, it is the main target of toxins and xenobiotics [4, 5].One of the synthesized food additives is sodium nitrite (NaNO 2 ), which can be present in vegetables, cured meat, and fish.In the body, NaNO 2 can be interconverted into various kinds of nitrogen molecules, including nitric oxide (NO) that improves digestive health by facilitating gastric flow, preserving the integrity of the gastric epithelium and muscular barrier , inhibiting white blood cells from adherence to the endothelium as well as decreasing the risk of cardiovascular diseases and improving the pulmonary health.In food industries, NaNO 2 is used in meat and fish as a color fixative agent to improve flavor, delay rancidity by preventing fat oxidation, and inhibit the growth of microorganisms such as Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus cereus, as well as C. botulinum that causes botulism [8, 10, 11].Exposure to NaNO 2 causes methemoglobinemia, hypoxia, and the formation of carcinogenic nitroso compounds due to their interaction with amide and amine in the stomach at low pH [8, 12].The nitroso compounds and other forms of nitrite generate free radicals such as superoxide (O 2 ), peroxynitrite (ONOO), and hydroxyl radicals (OH) that cause cellular damage by lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, carbohydrate carboxylation, and DNA damage leading to cancer, congenital disabilities, dysregulation of inflammatory responses, tissue injuries, nephrotoxicity, impairment of the reproductive system, disturbance of the endocrine system, growth retardation, and hepatotoxicity [5, 6, 13].Alternatively, the use of natural products such as compounds from plants and their derivatives have shown promising results because they are less toxic and have little or no side effects [4, 14, 15].It is also named ladies’ finger, bamyah, bamieh, kacang, gumbo, dharos, bhindi, bendi , or bamia in a particular region of the world.Okra pods contain polyphenols and flavonoids such as quercetin that have higher antioxidant activity [18–20] can scavenge free radicals and decrease oxidative stress in the cells.Okra is a popular vegetable crop with good nutritional significance and specific therapeutic values, making it a potential candidate for the use of a variety of nutraceuticals and affordable medicines.The antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of red okra pods on liver injury induced by sodium nitrite has not been reported to the best of our knowledge.Therefore, this study was done to investigate the antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of ethanol extract of red okra pods against sodium nitrite-induced liver injury in mice (Mus musculus).Neutral-buffer 10% formalin, Entellan, paraffin, alcohol hematoxylin, and eosin were purchased from a validated dealer in Surabaya, Indonesia.The Animal Care and Use Committee (ACUC) of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universitas Airlangga, approved this study (2.KE.057.04.209).The liver was cut to form small pieces then crushed with a mortar and pestle in the mixture of 5 mL phosphate buffer saline (PBS).The pellets obtained were resuspended in Tris-buffered NH 4 Cl, pH 7.2, to lyse the hepatocytes, centrifuged at 1500 rpm for 5 min.The absorbances were read at wavelength 550 nm using a spectrophotometer (Thermo Scientific™ Multiskan™GO), and the activity of SOD was calculated based on the manufacturer’s instructions.After the incubation at 25°C for 10 min, the optical density (OD) values at wavelength 570 nm were read in a microplate reader (Thermo Scientific™ Multiskan™GO).In summary, the liver tissue was cut into two sections and fixed into buffer formalin 10% and then embedded into paraffin blocks.Inflammation was scored following the method reported by Giribabu et al.
 and El-Nabarawy et al.  based on the number of foci recognized under the low-power field of a light microscope (100X).Observations were made on an Olympus 1 × 51 light microscope at the magnification of 400X to count the necrotic, normal, and swollen hepatocytes.The administration of ethanol extract of red okra pods ameliorated MDA and F2-isoprostanes by decreasing their liver homogenates’ concentrations.The results of the ethanol extract of red okra pods on the activity of the liver enzymes in the serum of mice exposed to 50 mg/kg BW are presented in Table 2.The administration of NaNO 2 caused a significant increase in the ALT activity in the serum SN by two folds compared to WA.The SN’s histological examinations showed severe inflammation (pathological score = 3, Table 3) around the portal vein, bile duct, and around the endothelia wall of the blood capillary.The tissue of P3 showed mild inflammation (pathological score = 1, Table 3) at the parenchyma hepatocytes accompanied by necrosis.The P4 group showed mild parenchymal inflammation infiltration (pathological score = 1, Table 3) and few necrotic and swollen cells.Although some liver microscopic changes were available in the SN, P1, P2, P3, and P4, the severity of the effects decreased depending on the dose of ethanol extract from red okra pods administered to the mice.Treatments WA SN P1 P2 P3 P4 Pathological scores 0a 3 3 2bc 1c 1c a,b,cDifferent superscript letters within each row indicate a significant difference between the means ( ).The percentage of normal hepatocytes was significantly decreased in SN, P1, P2, P3, and P4 compared to the mice who received distilled water only (WA).The administration of ethanol extract from red okra pods significantly increased the percentage of normal cells in the P2, P3, and P4 compared to the SN.The administration of NaNO 2 in SN significantly caused an increase in the hepatocytes’ swelling percentage compared to the WA.The administration of red okra pods ethanolic extract in P2, P3, and P4 significantly decreased the percentage of swelling compared to SN.Another reason for the decrease in the activities may be the direct reaction of the antioxidant enzymes’ metal cofactors (copper, iron, zinc, and manganese) with NO produced from NaNO 2 to form complexes .The increase of the SOD and CAT in the liver after the administration of ethanol extract from red okra pods was also reported in the study of Saravanan et al. and Hu et al.
[3, 34].In another study, okra flavonoid content caused an increase in the activity of SOD previously jeopardized by oxidative stress in fatigue-induced male mice compared to the control .It inhibited the enzymes involved in the production of the free radicals, such as reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (NOx) and microsomal monooxygenase or can directly chelate metal ions such as iron that are involved in the formation of the free radicals , hence preventing oxidative stress that can interrupt the activity of the antioxidant enzymes.NaNO2 causes hypoxia and the production of free radicals  that target the side-chain methylene carbon of PUFA to remove a hydrogen atom from it to start a destructive chain reaction .The decrease of MDA and F2-isoprostanes may be the red okra pods ethanol extract’s role to give their electrons to the free radicals to arrest PUFA peroxidation propagation .During inflammation, neutrophils can activate myeloperoxidase to convert H 2 O 2 produced from superoxide conversion by SOD to form hypochlorous acid (HOCl), a highly toxic substance .Therefore, the best mechanism to prevent NO formation and subsequent damaging molecules such as HOCl and ONOO is to scavenge free radicals such as O 2 and H 2 O 2 .It may have confirmed that the induction of NO production facilitates free radicals, which decrease antioxidant enzymes’ activities (SOD and CAT).NaNO 2 significantly caused an increase in ALP activity in the SN by approximately two folds compared to WA.NaNO 2 causes hepatocyte destruction through oxidative stress produced due to hypoxia, nitroso compound formation, or other metal-catalyzed reactions.In this study, the serum AST, ALT, and ALP activities generally decreased in the mice given the extract compared to the SN.These results may show that the flavonoid compounds from okra earlier described by Khomsug et al. , Anjani et al.
, and Irshad et al.  restored the normal activities of the enzymes at the highest dose (100 mg/kg BW).The results are corroborated by the study of Alqasoumi  and Hu et al.
, where the administration of various doses of ethanol and methanol extracts of okra caused a decrease in the activities of liver enzymes in carbon tetrachloride- (CCl 4 -) induced oxidative stress.The results of a decrease of TSP in the SN compared to the WA in the current study agree with Hassan et al. , Aboulgasem et al.
, and Adewale et al.  who reported an elevated concentration of TSP in male albino rats (Rattus rattus), Wistar rats, and guinea pigs, respectively, treated with NaNO 2 compared to the normal groups.In general, the decrease in TSP may indicate the liver’s failure to protect the body from oxidative stress caused by NaNO 2 .This increase in TSP concentration may indicate the hepatoprotective potential of ethanol extract of red okra pods from the oxidative stress induced by NaNO 2 exposure.Sodium nitrite can cause a rapid depletion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP); hence, the cell membrane loses some functional properties, allowing extracellular fluids and ions.The accumulation of macrophage around the portal area and in the parenchymal hepatocytes is associated with cells’ mechanism to eliminate toxic materials to preserve the normal metabolic activities .These findings from the microscopic examination of the hepatic tissue agree with those of Wahyuningsih et al.
, where the administration of methanol extract from green okra caused a decrease in the percentage of necrotic cells in the kidney in male BALB/c mice exposed to lead acetate.Moreover, our current findings are supported by Al-Rasheed et al. , who reported that flavonoids could chelate cellular iron ions to inhibit the ubiquitination of HIF-1α.The administration of red okra extract has proven to possess protective potential on the antioxidant system and liver by increasing SOD, CAT, and MDA and reducing F2-isoprostanes and NO.Therefore, it can be concluded that ethanol extract from red okra has antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity against liver injury induced by sodium nitrite.Hence, we recommend the red okra pods as affordable medicines and a natural antioxidant source to protect the liver against NaNO 2 toxicity.This work was funded by Penelitian Dasar Unggulan Perguruan Tinggi, Universitas Airlangga, Indonesia (Grant no. .
Dual role of immunomodulation by crude polysaccharide from okra
This study aims to investigate the effect of okra raw polysaccharide extract (ORPE) to immune cells and cytokines of mice with hepatocarcinogenic conditions induced by diethylnitrosamine (DEN). .
Supplementation of okra seed oil ameliorates ethanol-induced liver
Supplementation of okra seed oil ameliorates ethanol-induced liver injury and modulates gut microbiota dysbiosis in mice. .
Okra: Nutrition, benefits, and recipe tips
Also, people can use many parts of the plant, including the fresh leaves, buds, flowers, pods, stems, and seeds.Gumbo is popular in the southern United States, parts of Africa and the Middle East, the Caribbean, and South America.Individual needs for nutrients vary according to age, sex, activity level, and caloric intake.According to the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Nutrient Database, one cup of raw okra, weighing 100 grams (g) contains :.A diet rich in fruits and vegetables can reduce a person’s chances of developing a range of health conditions, including obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.In a 2014 study, researchers used lectin from okra in a lab test to treat human breast cancer cells.Low folate levels can lead to pregnancy loss and problems for the child, including conditions such as spina bifida.The 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend an intake of 400 mcg of folate each day for adults.In 2011, researchers made a powder from the peel and seeds of okra to treat rats with diabetes.After approximately 1 month, the rats that consumed the powder had lower blood sugar and fat levels than those that did not.According to the American Heart Association (AHA), eating foods that are high in fiber can reduce harmful cholesterol levels in the blood.High fiber foods lower the risk of heart disease, stroke, obesity, and diabetes.People can incorporate fiber into their diet by choosing fibrous foods, such as vegetables, fruits, legumes, and whole grains.Consuming foods that are good sources of vitamin K may help strengthen bones and prevent fractures.In Asian medicine, people add okra extract to foods to protect against irritation and inflammatory gastric diseases.In medicine, the viscous extract of okra could be useful as a tablet binder, a suspending agent, a serum albumin extender, a plasma replacement, or a blood volume expander. .
Do You Have Fatty Liver? These Are The Foods You Should Eat
People with fatty liver disease should avoid consumption of alcohol.Highlights Complex carbs and whole vegetables are good for fatty liver.It is a condition which is commonly diagnosed in people who are obese, those who eat a highly processed diet or the ones who live a sedentary lifestyle.Healthline states that the main way to treat fatty liver disease is by improving your diet.A person with fatty liver should eat more complex carbs, fibre and protein.Broccoli: People with fatty liver should include more whole vegetables in their diet, according to Medical News Today.A person with fatty liver disease should avoid alcohol or keep its consumption to the bare minimum.Ice creams, sweetened beverages, carbonated or aerated drinks, candy etc are off the table for people with fatty liver disease.Also read: Here's Another Reason To Eat Leafy Greens: Keeps Fatty Liver At Bay.Pastas, white bread, burger buns etc are all made with processed grains and must be avoided if you have fatty liver.Red meats are also high in saturated fats and should be avoided by people with fatty liver.Lean meats like chicken, fish, tofu, etc should be the preferred options for them. .