Here at PepperHead® we have been growing these “super hots” for over 15 years and have grown and eaten every pepper on this list.SHU is a way of quantifying how spicy a pepper is by measuring the concentration of capsaicinoids.Originally ranked as world’s hottest in 2013, the Reaper was tested again in 2018 with an even higher SHU.(71,000 SHU higher to be exact) This gives the reaper a renewed title as World’s Hottest!The Carolina Reaper has a unique stinger tail that is unlike any other pepper and every pod is different!Oddly enough this pepper doesn’t just have heat, but excellent fruity flavor to boot.Eat a whole Carolina Reaper Pepper on camera and receive a FREE T-Shirt!This pepper may be lacking the Reaper’s stinger, but don’t let that fool you.Watch Rhett & Link from Good Mythical Morning Eat the Moruga Scorpion.The hottest “superhot” peppers are traditionally red, but the Douglah defies the odds by being brown AND scortching hot.The Trinidad Scorpion Butch T is a previous Guinness World Record Holder (2011) from Australia.It’s aptly named due to the scorpion stinger found at the tip of the pepper and also the creator, Butch Taylor.The Trinidad Scorpion Butch T pepper burns like you swallowed a 1,000 suns.Naga Viper is an extremely rare pepper cultivated in the UK.The Ghost Pepper is the most famous “Super Hot” due to the amount of press it has received in the past.It exploded in popularity on YouTube and other social sites where pepperheads ate whole Ghost Peppers as part of a challenge.However, don’t be fooled by how low this is on the list as it can still bring a grown man to his knees.Back in the early years of super hots, the Red Savina Habanero was KING!The Red Savina just barely makes the Top 10, but does so in fashion with its great flavor and extreme heat.Order all Top 10 Hottest Pepper Seeds and save 30% over purchasing individually!We are so excited about our brand new product, the PepperHead Powder Sampler Kit!There have been recent reports of a Dragon’s Breath pepper claiming to be hotter than the Carolina Reaper.Preliminary testing of the Dragon’s Breath pepper pegs it at 2,483,584 SHU which would blow the Carolina Reaper out of the water.It could be a publicity stunt in which the “news” websites ate up, even claiming Dragon’s Breath could kill you. .

From Mildest to Hottest: A Guide to Peppers

The next factor is whether you remove the seeds and fleshy internal ribs of the pepper, where most of the heat resides.A century ago, pharmacist Wilbur Scoville designed a heat-scoring test for peppers that’s still in use today.While an individual pepper can taste milder or hotter than its score due to other variables, and taste sensitivity can vary from person to person, the Scoville scale is a good guide to picking packs of peppers.Banana peppers, which range from yellow to ripening red, are generally mild enough to eat raw.Ancho peppers are poblanos that have been allowed to ripen to red, then harvested and dried.The number of carefully-bred varieties of this little giant accounts for an unusually wide range of heat levels.Hot wax peppers are usually eaten fresh or pickled, and are used to season sauces, soups, and stews.Serrano peppers, with their smooth and gloss dark green skin, are a slightly smaller version of a jalapeño, and almost as popular.Carolina Cayenne peppers, developed at Clemson University, they are resistant to a particular crop-destroying nematode.Bird’s Eye peppers originated in Guyana, but are now widely grown across Africa, India, and Thailand.Scotch bonnet peppers look like cherry tomatoes wearing over-sized tam o’shanters.Habanero peppers are named for a city of Havana, which was once their chief trading port.Measuring from one to two inches in size, it resembles a small jalapeño or bell pepper that someone has pinched and left dents in.Over the years, increasingly hotter strains of habaneros have been bred, and their Scoville rating was recently expanded from an upper limit of 350,000 to the eye-popping number below.Bhut Jolokia peppers, native to northeast India, are also grown in Pakistan and Sri Lanka.The pepper is roughly the size and shape of a jalapeño, but with a thin skin that, when ripe and red, is noticeably wrinkled.It happens to every pepper lover at one time or another – you take a bite and suddenly your eyes are watering, your mouth is on fire, and you’re breaking out in a sweat.Instead of reaching for a glass of ice water, have some slices of raw apple on hand. .

The cool science of hot peppers

The spray’s high levels of capsaicin will burn the eyes and throats of attackers — but won’t kill people.In smaller doses, capsaicin can relieve pain, help with weight loss and possibly affect microbes in the gut to keep people healthier.A popular Mexican dish, chile rellenos are whole hot chili peppers stuffed with cheese and then fried.Before refrigerators, people living in most hot parts of the world developed a taste for spicy foods.The people who first added hot peppers to their recipes probably had no idea chilies could make their food safer; they just liked the stuff.If a person accidentally places fingers on a hot stove, the pain makes him or her yank that hand back quickly.“[Peppers] trick our brain into thinking we are being burned,” says Tewksbury, who now leads the Boulder, Colo., office of Future Earth.Pepper plants likely evolved their fake-out technique to keep certain animals from eating up their fruit, according to Tewksbury’s research.People managed to outsmart the pepper when they realized that a chili’s pain doesn’t cause any lasting damage.Capsaicin does not actually damage the body in the same way that a hot stovetop will — at least not in small amounts.Essentially, he says, the light “shines so brightly that after a while, the bulb burns out.” Then the TRPV1 protein can’t turn back on again.For example, people with arthritis (Arth-RY-tis) regularly have pain in their fingers, knees, hips or other joints.Rohacs warns that capsaicin creams don’t seem to soak deeply enough into the skin to totally eliminate pain.However, a person can’t simply eat hot, spicy food and expect to shed pounds.His team is now working to create a drug to make the body burn through fat more quickly than usual.Just as a bonfire chews through wood to produce hot flames, the human body turns fat from food into the energy it needs.Thyagarajan’s team is now working on a capsaicin-based drug aimed at helping obese people — those who have more stored fat than their bodies need — to shed their excess weight.In a 2015 study, his group showed that mice that ate a high-fat diet containing capsaicin did not gain extra weight.“When we convert the dose that worked on mice or rats to humans, [people] don’t tolerate it.” It’s too spicy!Capsaicin may be the most exciting chemical inside a chili pepper, but it isn’t the only reason to spice up your diet.Li’s team is now studying how chilies and other cooking spices change the bacteria living in the human gut.Researchers at the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences in Beijing tracked half a million adults in China for seven years.And people who regularly ate fresh chilies, in particular, were less likely to die of cancer or heart disease.As scientists continue to uncover the secret powers of chili peppers, people will keep spicing up their soups, stews, stir-fries and other favorite dishes.capsaicin The compound in spicy chili peppers that imparts a burning sensation on the tongue or skin.chili pepper A small vegetable pod often used in cooking to make food hot and spicy.curry Any dish from the cooking tradition of India that uses a blend of strong spices, including turmeric, cumin and chili powder.dihydrocapsiate A chemical found in some peppers that is related to capsaicin, but does not cause a burning sensation.fat A natural oily or greasy substance occurring in animal bodies, especially when deposited as a layer under the skin or around certain organs.During the fight-or-flight response, digestion shuts down as the body prepares to deal with the threat (fight) or to run away from it (flight).hormone (in zoology and medicine) A chemical produced in a gland and then carried in the bloodstream to another part of the body.(in botany) A chemical that serves as a signaling compound that tells cells of a plant when and how to develop, or when to grow old and die.A living thing that is too small to see with the unaided eye, including bacteria, some fungi and many other organisms such as amoebas.nutrition The healthful components (nutrients) in the diet — such as proteins, fats, vitamins and minerals — that the body uses to grow and to fuel its processes.Obesity is associated with a wide range of health problems, including type 2 diabetes and high blood pressure.pharmacology The study of how chemicals work in the body, often as a way to design new drugs to treat disease.The hemoglobin in blood and the antibodies that attempt to fight infections are among the better-known, stand-alone proteins.Medicines frequently work by latching onto proteins.stress (in biology) A factor, such as unusual temperatures, moisture or pollution, that affects the health of a species or ecosystem.vitamin Any of a group of chemicals that are essential for normal growth and nutrition and are required in small quantities in the diet because they cannot be made by the body. .


Ripe pods are brown in color, with the internal membrane covering much of the inside of the pepper is white. .

Hottest chili pepper

Guinness Book of World Records, when they added a "Food and Drink" record category, also added a "Spices" subcategory, that originally had a paragraph for claims of the "Hottest of all spices" and in 1989, the wild Tepin was listed with a relative heat level, comparing what one dried gram of that pepper would make how many pounds of sauce detectably hot.[3] California farmer Frank Garcia used a sport of a habanero to develop a new cultivar, the Red Savina, which was measured at 570,000 in 1994.In 2001, Paul Bosland, a researcher at the Chile Pepper Institute at New Mexico State University, visited India to collect specimens of ghost pepper, also called the Bhut Jolokia or Naga king chili,[5] traditionally grown near Assam, India, which was being studied by the Indian army for weaponization.Many of the cultivars developed in the attempt to produce ever-hotter peppers are hybrids of chilies traditionally grown in India and Trinidad.[10] Super-hots should be handled with gloves and using eye protection, as contact with even a single seed can cause skin irritation via chili burn.[3] According to Marc Fennell, creator of the podcast It Burns, the competition "is a hugely controversial war – there are scandals, accusations of cheating, death threats."[11] According to Maxim, the race has "ignited heated debate" among chiliheads (or chileheads) and raised "deep questions about science, ethics, and honor.[7] Guinness has been criticized by Trinidad Moruga scorpion creator Jim Duffy for "bestowing the title on insufficiently authenticated fruits",[14] and the company has not named a new hottest pepper since recognizing the Carolina Reaper in 2013, despite the entry of at least two contenders.[14] Industry expert Dave DeWitt in 2011 called for "an independent certifying authority that takes the place of Guinness and requires at least two separate tests for each submission".[12] The developer of the Naga Viper pepper, which claimed the record for a short period in 2011, earned US$40,000 in one month from sales of seeds and sauces.[8][12] The developer of the Trinidad Moruga scorpion, which claimed the record in 2012, made US$10,000 in two days selling seeds.[7] According to Dave DeWitt, in 2013 "a typical Scorpion pepper pod at a farmers’ market [would] go for one dollar", speculating that "behind marijuana, they have the potential to become the second- or third-highest yielding crop per acre monetarily".[14] Chiliheads make YouTube videos showing themselves eating super-hots as a means of providing entertainment or marketing the heat of a particular pepper. .

Hot Peppers: Muy Caliente

If you look at the structure of capsaicin (below), you will notice that one end of the molecule is made of a long hydrocarbon tail.A polar molecule, on the other hand, has distinct regions of positive and negative charge—the shared electrons will tend to stay near the atom with the higher electronegativity, or greater ability to attract electrons. .

Chili pepper

Capsaicin and related compounds known as capsaicinoids are the substances giving chili peppers their intensity when ingested or applied topically.[5] After the Columbian Exchange, many cultivars of chili pepper spread around the world, used for both food and traditional medicine.Cultivars grown in North America and Europe are believed to all derive from Capsicum annuum, and have white, yellow, red or purple to black fruits.In 2019, the world's production of raw green chili peppers amounted to 38 million tons, with China producing half.Peru is the country with the highest cultivated Capsicum diversity because it is a center of diversification where varieties of all five domesticates were introduced, grown, and consumed in pre-Columbian times.Bolivian consumers distinguish two basic forms: ulupicas, species with small round fruits including C. eximium, C. cardenasii, C.

eshbaughii, and C. caballeroi landraces; and arivivis with small elongated fruits including C.

baccatum var.Production of chillies and peppers, green – 2019 Region (Millions of tons) China 19.0 Mexico 3.3 Turkey 2.6 Indonesia 2.6 Spain 1.4 World 38.0 Source: FAOSTAT of the United Nations [6].Capsicum chinense includes the hottest peppers such as the naga, habanero, Datil and Scotch bonnet.The substances that give chili peppers their pungency (spicy heat) when ingested or applied topically are capsaicin (8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide) and several related chemicals, collectively called capsaicinoids.When a habanero plant is stressed, by absorbing low water for example, the concentration of capsaicin increases in some parts of the fruit.[21] The modern method is a quantitative analysis of SHU using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to directly measure the capsaicinoid content of a chili pepper variety.Pure capsaicin is a hydrophobic, colorless, odorless, and crystalline-to-waxy solid at room temperature, and measures 16,000,000 SHU.Capsaicin is produced by the plant as a defense against mammalian predators and microbes, in particular a fusarium fungus carried by hemipteran insects that attack certain species of chili peppers, according to one study.[22] Peppers increased the quantity of capsaicin in proportion to the damage caused by fungal predation on the plant's seeds.NOTE: SHU claims marked with an asterisk (*) have not been confirmed by Guinness World Records.Chilies are sometimes used whole or in large slices, by roasting, or other means of blistering or charring the skin, so as not to entirely cook the flesh beneath.In India, most households always keep a stock of fresh hot green chilies at hand, and use them to flavor most curries and dry dishes.Some notable chili-forward dishes other than the ones mentioned elsewhere in this article include arrabbiata sauce, paprikash, chiles en nogada, jerk chicken, mole poblano, nam phrik, 'nduja, sambal, and som tam.Fresh or dried chilies are often used to make hot sauce, a liquid condiment—usually bottled when commercially available—that adds spice to other dishes.Hot sauces are found in many cuisines including harissa from North Africa, chili oil from China (known as rāyu in Japan), and sriracha from Thailand.This method lets people experience extreme feelings without any significant risk of bodily harm.Capsaicin, the chemical in chili peppers that makes them hot, is used as an analgesic in topical ointments, nasal sprays, and dermal patches to relieve pain.Capsaicin extracted from chilies is used in pepper sprays and some tear gas formulations as a chemical irritant, for use as less-lethal weapons for control of unruly individuals or crowds.Because the elephants have a large and sensitive olfactory and nasal system, the smell of the chili causes them discomfort and deters them from feeding on the crops.By planting a few rows of the pungent fruit around valuable crops, farmers create a buffer zone through which the elephants are reluctant to pass.They are bricks made of mixing dung and chili, and are burned, creating a noxious smoke that keeps hungry elephants out of farmers' fields.Chili peppers are eaten by birds living in the chili peppers' natural range, possibly contributing to seed dispersal and evolution of the protective capsaicin in chili peppers, as a bird in flight can spread the seeds further away from the parent plant after they pass through its digestive system than any land or tree dwelling mammal could do so under the same circumstances, thus reducing competition for resources.Chile is the most common Spanish spelling in Mexico and several other Latin American countries, [44] as well as some parts of the United States [45] and Canada, which refers specifically to this plant and its the most common Spanish spelling in Mexico and several other Latin American countries, as well as some parts of the United States and Canada, which refers specifically to this plant and its fruit.Chilli was the original Romanization of the Náhuatl language word for the fruit (chīlli)[46] and is the preferred British spelling according to the Oxford English Dictionary, although it also lists chile and chili as variants.Certain Spanish-speaking countries in South America and the Caribbean, including Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, Peru, Dominican Republic, Venezuela and Puerto Rico, call the peppers as ají, a word of Taíno origin.[50] The word pepper is also commonly used in the botanical and culinary fields in the names of different types of pungent plants and their fruits. .


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