L. Synonyms[1] List Battata tuberosa (L.) Hill Larnax sylvarum subsp.carhua Vargas Solanum andigenum f. ccompetillo Bukasov & Lechn.digitotuberosum Vargas Solanum andigenum f. dilatatum Bukasov & Lechn.chubutense (Bitter) Hawkes Solanum tuberosum f. conicum Bukasov & Lechn.Wild potato species, originating in modern-day Peru, can be found throughout the Americas, from Canada to southern Chile.[3] The potato was originally believed to have been domesticated by Native Americans independently in multiple locations,[4] but later genetic testing of the wide variety of cultivars and wild species traced a single origin for potatoes, in the area of present-day southern Peru and extreme northwestern Bolivia.Potatoes were domesticated approximately 7,000–10,000 years ago there, from a species in the Solanum brevicaule complex.[5][6][7] In the Andes region of South America, where the species is indigenous, some close relatives of the potato are cultivated.Potatoes were introduced to Europe from the Americas in the second half of the 16th century by the Spanish.As of 2014, potatoes were the world's fourth-largest food crop after maize (corn), wheat, and rice.[6] Over 99% of presently cultivated potatoes worldwide descended from varieties that originated in the lowlands of south-central Chile.[9] The importance of the potato as a food source and culinary ingredient varies by region and is still changing.Normal potato tubers that have been grown and stored properly produce glycoalkaloids in amounts small enough to be negligible to human health, but if green sections of the plant (namely sprouts and skins) are exposed to light, the tuber can accumulate a high enough concentration of glycoalkaloids to affect human health.The English word potato comes from Spanish patata (the name used in Spain).[11][12] The name originally referred to the sweet potato although the two plants are not closely related.The word has an unknown origin and was originally ( c. 1440) used as a term for a short knife or dagger, probably related to the Latin spad- a word root meaning "sword"; compare Spanish espada, English "spade", and spadroon.[15] The origin of the word spud has erroneously been attributed to an 18th-century activist group dedicated to keeping the potato out of Britain, calling itself the Society for the Prevention of Unwholesome Diet.It was Mario Pei's 1949 The Story of Language that can be blamed for the word's false origin.Some Englishmen who did not fancy potatoes formed a Society for the Prevention of Unwholesome Diet.The initials of the main words in this title gave rise to spud.".Like most other pre-20th century acronymic origins, this is false, and there is no evidence that a Society for the Prevention of Unwholesome Diet ever existed.At least six languages (Afrikaans, Dutch, French, Hebrew, Persian and some variants of German) are known to use a term for "potato" that translates roughly (or literally) into English as "earth apple" or "ground apple".Potato plants are herbaceous perennials that grow about 60 cm (24 in) high, depending on variety, with the leaves dying back after flowering, fruiting and tuber formation.They bear white, pink, red, blue, or purple flowers with yellow stamens.Tubers form in response to decreasing day length, although this tendency has been minimized in commercial varieties.Like all parts of the plant except the tubers, the fruit contain the toxic alkaloid solanine and are therefore unsuitable for consumption.Three thousand of them are found in the Andes alone, mainly in Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador, Chile, and Colombia.[20] The Andean potato is adapted to the short-day conditions prevalent in the mountainous equatorial and tropical regions where it originated; the Chilean potato, however, native to the Chiloé Archipelago, is adapted to the long-day conditions prevalent in the higher latitude region of southern Chile.[24] Nonetheless, genetic testing of the wide variety of cultivars and wild species affirms that all potato subspecies derive from a single origin in the area of present-day southern Peru and extreme Northwestern Bolivia (from a species in the Solanum brevicaule complex).Most modern potatoes grown in North America arrived through European settlement and not independently from the South American sources, although at least one wild potato species, Solanum fendleri, naturally ranges from Peru into Texas, where it is used in breeding for resistance to a nematode species that attacks cultivated potatoes.A secondary center of genetic variability of the potato is Mexico, where important wild species that have been used extensively in modern breeding are found, such as the hexaploid Solanum demissum, as a source of resistance to the devastating late blight disease.The distinction may also arise from variation in the comparative ratio of two different potato starch compounds: amylose and amylopectin.Amylose, a long-chain molecule, diffuses from the starch granule when cooked in water, and lends itself to dishes where the potato is mashed.Varieties that contain a slightly higher amylopectin content, which is a highly branched molecule, help the potato retain its shape after being boiled in water.They are typically small in size and tender, with a loose skin, and flesh containing a lower level of starch than other potatoes.[33] They are distinct from "baby", "salad" or "fingerling" potatoes, which are small and tend to have waxy flesh, but are grown to maturity and can be stored for months before being sold.The European Cultivated Potato Database (ECPD) is an online collaborative database of potato variety descriptions that is updated and maintained by the Scottish Agricultural Science Agency within the framework of the European Cooperative Programme for Crop Genetic Resources Networks (ECP/GR)—which is run by the International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI).Dozens of potato cultivars have been selectively bred specifically for their skin or, more commonly, flesh color, including gold, red, and blue varieties[35] that contain varying amounts of phytochemicals, including carotenoids for gold/yellow or polyphenols for red or blue cultivars.[36] Carotenoid compounds include provitamin A alpha-carotene and beta-carotene, which are converted to the essential nutrient, vitamin A, during digestion.Anthocyanins mainly responsible for red or blue pigmentation in potato cultivars do not have nutritional significance, but are used for visual variety and consumer appeal.McDonald's, Burger King, Frito-Lay, and Procter & Gamble announced they would not use genetically modified potatoes, and Monsanto published its intent to discontinue the line in March 2001.BASF developed the Amflora potato, which was modified to express antisense RNA to inactivate the gene for granule bound starch synthase, an enzyme which catalyzes the formation of amylose.Nevertheless, under EU rules, individual countries have the right to decide whether they will allow this potato to be grown on their territory.Commercial planting of 'Amflora' was expected in the Czech Republic and Germany in the spring of 2010, and Sweden and the Netherlands in subsequent years.[41] Another GM potato variety developed by BASF is 'Fortuna' which was made resistant to late blight by adding two resistance genes, blb1 and blb2, which originate from the Mexican wild potato Solanum bulbocastanum.[42][43] In October 2011 BASF requested cultivation and marketing approval as a feed and food from the EFSA.[44][45] In November 2014, the USDA approved a genetically modified potato developed by J.R.

Simplot Company, which contains genetic modifications that prevent bruising and produce less acrylamide when fried than conventional potatoes; the modifications do not cause new proteins to be made, but rather prevent proteins from being made via RNA interference.Genetically modified varieties have met public resistance in the United States and in the European Union.The potato was first domesticated in the region of modern-day southern Peru and northwestern Bolivia[5] by pre-Columbian farmers, around Lake Titicaca.The earliest archaeologically verified potato tuber remains have been found at the coastal site of Ancon (central Peru), dating to 2500 BC.According to conservative estimates, the introduction of the potato was responsible for a quarter of the growth in Old World population and urbanization between 1700 and 1900.[52] In the Altiplano, potatoes provided the principal energy source for the Inca civilization, its predecessors, and its Spanish successor.The staple was subsequently conveyed by European (possibly including Russian) mariners to territories and ports throughout the world, especially their colonies.[53] The potato was slow to be adopted by European and colonial farmers, but after 1750 it became an important food staple and field crop[53] and played a major role in the European 19th century population boom.[7] However, lack of genetic diversity, due to the very limited number of varieties initially introduced, left the crop vulnerable to disease.In 1845, a plant disease known as late blight, caused by the fungus-like oomycete Phytophthora infestans, spread rapidly through the poorer communities of western Ireland as well as parts of the Scottish Highlands, resulting in the crop failures that led to the Great Irish Famine.In 2018, world production of potatoes was 368 million tonnes, led by China with 27% of the total (table).Other major producers were India, Russia, Ukraine and the United States.It remains an essential crop in Europe (especially northern and eastern Europe), where per capita production is still the highest in the world, but the most rapid expansion over the past few decades has occurred in southern and eastern Asia.According to the United States Department of Agriculture, a typical raw potato is 79% water, 17% carbohydrates (88% is starch), 2% protein, and contains negligible fat (see table).The GI of potatoes can vary considerably depending on the cultivar, growing conditions and storage, preparation methods (by cooking method, whether it is eaten hot or cold, whether it is mashed or cubed or consumed whole), and accompanying foods consumed (especially the addition of various high-fat or high-protein toppings).[59] Consuming reheated or pre-cooked and cooled potatoes may yield a lower GI effect due to the formation of resistant starch.In the UK, potatoes are not considered by the National Health Service (NHS) as counting or contributing towards the recommended daily five portions of fruit and vegetables, the 5-A-Day program.This table shows the nutrient content of potatoes next to other major staple foods, each one measured in its respective raw state on a dry weight basis to account for their different water contents, even though staple foods are not commonly eaten raw and are usually sprouted or cooked before eating.In sprouted and cooked form, the relative nutritional and anti-nutritional contents of each of these grains (or other foods) may be different from the values in this table.Each nutrient (every row) has the highest number highlighted to show the staple food with the greatest amount in a dry 100 gram portion.Potatoes contain toxic compounds known as glycoalkaloids, of which the most prevalent are solanine and chaconine.These compounds, which protect the potato plant from its predators, are generally concentrated in its leaves, flowers, sprouts, and fruits (in contrast to the tubers).[62] In a summary of several studies, the glycoalkaloid content was highest in the flowers and sprouts and lowest in the tuber flesh.Exposure to light, physical damage, and age increase glycoalkaloid content within the tuber.The concentration of glycoalkaloids in wild potatoes is sufficient to produce toxic effects in humans.Glycoalkaloid poisoning may cause headaches, diarrhea, cramps, and, in severe cases, coma and death.Light exposure causes greening from chlorophyll synthesis, giving a visual clue as to which areas of the tuber may have become more toxic.However, this does not provide a definitive guide, as greening and glycoalkaloid accumulation can occur independently of each other.The Lenape variety was released in 1967 but was withdrawn in 1970 as it contained high levels of glycoalkaloids.[64] Since then, breeders developing new varieties test for this, and sometimes have to discard an otherwise promising cultivar.However, when these commercial varieties turn green, they can still approach solanine concentrations of 1000 mg/kg (1000 ppmw).In normal potatoes, analysis has shown solanine levels may be as little as 3.5% of the breeders' maximum, with 7–187 mg/kg being found.To be disease free, the areas where seed potatoes are grown are selected with care.[67] These locations are selected for their cold, hard winters that kill pests and summers with long sunshine hours for optimum growth.During the first phase, sprouts emerge from the seed potatoes and root growth begins.In the third phase the tips of the stolons swell forming new tubers and the shoots continue to grow and flowers typically develop soon after.Potatoes grown in a tall bag are common in gardens as they minimize the amount of digging required at harvest.Since exposure to light leads to an undesirable greening of the skins and the development of solanine as a protection from the sun's rays, growers cover surface tubers.Commercial growers cover them by piling additional soil around the base of the plant as it grows (called "hilling" up, or in British English "earthing up").An alternative method, used by home gardeners and smaller-scale growers, involves covering the growing area with organic mulches such as straw or plastic sheets.Home gardeners often plant a piece of potato with two or three eyes in a hill of mounded soil.Even cold weather makes potatoes more susceptible to bruising and possibly later rotting, which can quickly ruin a large stored crop.The historically significant Phytophthora infestans (late blight) remains an ongoing problem in Europe[25][73] and the United States.Since its eggs can survive in the soil for several years, crop rotation is recommended.According to an Environmental Working Group analysis of USDA and FDA pesticide residue tests performed from 2000 through 2008, 84% of the 2,216 tested potato samples contained detectable traces of at least one pesticide.The average quantity of all pesticide traces found in the 2,216 samples was 1.602 ppm.This is transported up an apron chain consisting of steel links several feet wide, which separates some of the dirt.The most complex designs use vine choppers and shakers, along with a blower system to separate the potatoes from the plant.Further inspection and separation occurs when the potatoes are unloaded from the field vehicles and put into storage.Curing is normally done at relatively warm temperatures (10 to 16 °C or 50 to 60 °F) with high humidity and good gas-exchange if at all possible.Storage facilities need to be carefully designed to keep the potatoes alive and slow the natural process of sprouting which involves the breakdown of starch.The discovery of acrylamides in starchy foods in 2002 has led to international health concerns.They are believed to be probable carcinogens and their occurrence in cooked foods is being studied for potentially influencing health problems.Chlorpropham (CIPC) is the main chemical used, but toxicity concerns have led to it being banned in the EU.[79] Alternatives are applying maleic hydrazide to the crop whilst it is still growing[80] or the use of ethylene, spearmint and orange oils and 1,4-dimethylnaphthalene.Mechanical ventilation is used at various points during the process to prevent condensation and the accumulation of carbon dioxide.The world dedicated 18.6 million hectares (46 million acres) to potato cultivation in 2010; the world average yield was 17.4 tonnes per hectare (7.8 short tons per acre).The United States was the most productive country, with a nationwide average yield of 44.3 tonnes per hectare (19.8 short tons per acre).There is a big gap among various countries between high and low yields, even with the same variety of potato.Average potato yields in developed economies ranges between 38 and 44 tonnes per hectare.China and India accounted for over a third of world's production in 2010, and had yields of 14.7 and 19.9 tonnes per hectare respectively.[81] The yield gap between farms in developing economies and developed economies represents an opportunity loss of over 400 million tonnes of potato, or an amount greater than 2010 world potato production.[85][86] The food energy yield of potatoes—about 95 gigajoules per hectare (9.2 million kilocalories per acre)—is higher than that of maize (78 GJ/ha or 7.5×10 ^ 6 kcal/acre), rice (77 GJ/ha or 7.4×10 ^ 6 kcal/acre), wheat (31 GJ/ha or 3×10 ^ 6 kcal/acre), or soybeans (29 GJ/ha or 2.8×10 ^ 6 kcal/acre).Climate change is predicted to have significant effects on global potato production.[88] Like many crops, potatoes are likely to be affected by changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide, temperature and precipitation, as well as interactions between these factors.Unlike many foods, potatoes can also be easily cooked in a microwave oven and still retain nearly all of their nutritional value, provided they are covered in ventilated plastic wrap to prevent moisture from escaping; this method produces a meal very similar to a steamed potato, while retaining the appearance of a conventionally baked potato.Potatoes are boiled between 10 and 25[89] minutes, depending on size and type, to become soft.Livestock-grade potatoes, considered too small and/or blemished to sell or market for human use but suitable for fodder use, have been called chats in some dialects.[90] Some farmers prefer to steam them rather than feed them raw and are equipped to do so efficiently.Some farmers prefer to steam them rather than feed them raw and are equipped to do so efficiently.Peruvian cuisine naturally contains the potato as a primary ingredient in many dishes, as around 3,000 varieties of this tuber are grown there.French-fried potatoes are a typical ingredient in Peruvian stir-fries, including the classic dish lomo saltado.Chuño is a freeze-dried potato product traditionally made by Quechua and Aymara communities of Peru and Bolivia,[95] and is known in various countries of South America, including Peru, Bolivia, Argentina, and Chile.In Chile's Chiloé Archipelago, potatoes are the main ingredient of many dishes, including milcaos, chapaleles, curanto and chochoca.In the UK, potatoes form part of the traditional staple, fish and chips.Roast potatoes are commonly served as part of a Sunday roast dinner and mashed potatoes form a major component of several other traditional dishes, such as shepherd's pie, bubble and squeak, and bangers and mash.Colcannon is a traditional Irish food made with mashed potato, shredded kale or cabbage, and onion; champ is a similar dish.Boxty pancakes are eaten throughout Ireland, although associated especially with the North, and in Irish diaspora communities; they are traditionally made with grated potatoes, soaked to loosen the starch and mixed with flour, buttermilk and baking powder.A variant eaten and sold in Lancashire, especially Liverpool, is made with cooked and mashed potatoes.In the UK, game chips are a traditional accompaniment to roast gamebirds such as pheasant, grouse, partridge and quail.Halušky dumplings are made from a batter consisting of flour and grated potatoes.In Germany, Northern (Finland, Latvia and especially Scandinavian countries), Eastern Europe (Russia, Belarus and Ukraine) and Poland, newly harvested, early ripening varieties are considered a special delicacy.Boiled whole and served un-peeled with dill, these "new potatoes" are traditionally consumed with Baltic herring.Bauernfrühstück (literally farmer's breakfast) is a warm German dish made from fried potatoes, eggs, ham and vegetables.They are a type of dumpling made from grated raw potatoes boiled in water and usually stuffed with minced meat, although sometimes dry cottage cheese (curd) or mushrooms are used instead.Stamppot, a traditional Dutch meal, is based on mashed potatoes mixed with vegetables.In France, the most notable potato dish is the Hachis Parmentier, named after Antoine-Augustin Parmentier, a French pharmacist, nutritionist, and agronomist who, in the late 18th century, was instrumental in the acceptance of the potato as an edible crop in the country.Gratin dauphinois, consisting of baked thinly sliced potatoes with cream or milk, and tartiflette, with Reblochon cheese, are also widespread.In the north of Italy, in particular, in the Friuli region of the northeast, potatoes serve to make a type of pasta called gnocchi.A traditional Canary Islands dish is Canarian wrinkly potatoes or papas arrugadas.Poutine , a Canadian dish of fried potatoes, cheese curds, and gravy.In the US, potatoes have become one of the most widely consumed crops and thus have a variety of preparation methods and condiments.French fries and often hash browns are commonly found in typical American fast-food burger "joints" and cafeterias.At more formal dinners, a common practice includes taking small red potatoes, slicing them, and roasting them in an iron skillet.Among American Jews, the practice of eating latkes (fried potato pancakes) is common during the festival of Hanukkah.The Acadian poutine is a ball of grated and mashed potato, salted, sometimes filled with pork in the centre, and boiled.Poutine, by contrast, is a hearty serving of French fries, fresh cheese curds and hot gravy.2 are rated as lower in quality due to their appearance (e.g. blemishes or bruises, pointy ends).In India, the most popular potato dishes are aloo ki sabzi, batata vada, and samosa, which is spicy mashed potato mixed with a small amount of vegetable stuffed in conical dough, and deep fried.Potatoes are also a major ingredient as fast food items, such as aloo chaat, where they are deep fried and served with chutney.It is a thin pancake of rice and pulse batter rolled over spicy smashed potato and eaten with sambhar and chutney.Poori in south India in particular in Tamil Nadu is almost always taken with smashed potato masal.Vada pav is a popular vegetarian fast food dish in Mumbai and other regions in the Maharashtra in India.Aloo posto (a curry with potatoes and poppy seeds) is immensely popular in East India, especially Bengal.The Aloo gosht, Potato and meat curry, is one of the popular dishes in South Asia, especially in Pakistan.However, it is used in northern China where rice is not easily grown, with a popular dish being 青椒土豆丝 (qīng jiāo tǔ dòu sī), made with green pepper, vinegar and thin slices of potato.In the winter, roadside sellers in northern China will also sell roasted potatoes.The Moche culture from Northern Peru made ceramics from the earth, water, and fire.This pottery was a sacred substance, formed in significant shapes and used to represent important themes.During the late 19th century, numerous images of potato harvesting appeared in European art, including the works of Willem Witsen and Anton Mauve.He deliberately chose coarse and ugly models, thinking that they would be natural and unspoiled in his finished work.Jean-François Millet's The Potato Harvest depicts peasants working in the plains between Barbizon and Chailly.Millet's technique for this work incorporated paste-like pigments thickly applied over a coarsely textured canvas.



The ends of the stolons may enlarge greatly to form a few to more than 20 tubers, of variable shape and size, usually ranging in weight up to 300 grams (10 ounces) but occasionally to more than 1.5 kg (3.3 pounds).Indeed, vegetative reproduction is always used commercially, though the resulting decrease in genetic diversity has made the popular varieties more vulnerable to pests and diseases. .

Growing Potatoes: How to Plant & Harvest Potatoes

But in my experience, containers like these require constant attention to watering, and yield smaller harvests than growing in a raised bed.I achieve an enormous harvest—enough to feed two for nearly a year—by planting potatoes in two 4'-x-8' raised beds.The tubers are wildly productive in the well-draining, rock-free soil the beds provide, and the vines require deep watering only once each week.Of all the root vegetables I grow, it is the potatoes that give me the biggest thrill at harvest time.I love to stick my hands in the soil and retrieve the buried bounty, with a yield of eight to ten potatoes for every one that I plant.Step 2: Separate the Eyes Only small, golf ball-sized potatoes should be planted whole.I cut mine so that each segment has two or three "eyes" (the little bumps from which sprouts emerge, as shown in the photo).Either set them out in the sun, or place them on a table or counter in a warm (about 70°F), moderately lit room for three to five days.Gardeners in warm climates often plant around Valentine’s Day, while those in cooler areas may get them into the ground near Easter, or early spring.A good rule of thumb is to aim for 3-4 weeks prior to your last frost date.Small new potatoes can be ready as early as ten weeks.The closet in my mudroom doesn’t cool off until the outside temperatures plunges to 45° at night.After digging the tubers, I let them sit on top of the raised beds for a few hours to dry, as illustrated.Then I gently brush off any loose soil from the tubers, and place them in double thicknesses of paper bags.If you don’t want to bother with hilling, plant your potatoes 8-9 inches deep.To reduce the chance of infection, never plant potatoes (or tomatoes and other members of the nightshade family, such as eggplants or chili peppers) in the same patch of land without leaving an interval of at least three years.The disease overwinters in tubers left behind during the previous year’s harvest. .

How to Grow Potatoes — Seed Savers Exchange Blog

They are aggressively rooting plants, and we find that they will produce the best crop when planted in a light, loose, well-drained soil.When to Plant Potatoes.Potato plants will not begin to grow until the soil temperature has reached 45 degrees F. The soil should be moist, but not water-logged.If you want to extend storage times, and have a long growing season, you can plant a second crop as late as June 15 and harvest the potatoes as late as possible.Let the plants start to grow and then continue to fill in the trench and even mound the soil around the plants as they continue to grow.Potatoes do well with 1-2 inches of water or rain per week.This will help start curing the potatoes for harvest time.Baby potatoes typically can be harvested 2-3 weeks after the plants have finished flowering.Gently dig around the plants to remove potatoes for fresh eating, being careful not to be too intrusive.Saving Seed Stock.You may find that after several years the size begins to decrease; this is typical. .

How Potato Grows

As the potato plant grows, its compound leaves manufacture starch that is transferred to the ends of its underground stems (or stolons). .

Master Gardener: When are potatoes ready to harvest? – Press

Now that they have started to grow, we’ve been wondering how to tell when the potatoes are ready for harvest.A: I guess this could puzzle a gardener at first, since the potatoes are a root crop and grow beneath the soil surface.The plants themselves are rather pretty in the garden with dark green leaves growing to about knee-high.One sign that young potatoes are ready is the formation of flowers on the plants.This exotic‑looking “no‑mow” grass does well in most areas of Southern California. .

How to Grow Potato Plants

Space potato plants 12 to 14 inches apart in an area with loose, fertile soil that has a pH of 5.8 to 6.5.Improve compacted or clay-heavy soils by mixing in several inches of compost or other rich organic matter.Feed growing potatoes with a continuous-release plant food to maximize your harvest potential.Potatoes exposed to sunlight turn green, which causes flesh to taste bitter.Research has shown that maintaining a 6-inch-thick straw layer around potatoes keeps soil temperatures 10 degrees lower.Move potatoes to a different place in the garden each year to help limit disease and insect problems. .

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