Then the next time you open up the cupboard, you discover said potatoes have started sprouting and now resemble an alien lifeform.This allows the plants to survive through the cold winter period because the tubers are deep below the soil surface where they are protected from frost.The production of chlorophyll triggers the green colour – this is not at all harmful and indeed contains high quantities of beneficial minerals such as iron.But light and warmth also triggers the production of Solanine – a chemical which can cause symptoms of poisoning in humans if ingested in large quantities.Symptoms include nausea, diarrhoea, vomiting, stomach cramps, burning of the throat, headaches and dizziness.Of course, you can remove the green area of peel and the shoots which will reduce any chance of a toxic reaction but there can still be a bitter flavour to potatoes that have begun to grow.The start of the growth process will also begin the assimilation of the sugars and vitamins present which means that the potato is now less nutritious, too.Having said that, when stuck for something to eat, I have knocked small shoots off potatoes and peeled off any green bits many a time.And if you have no space to grow them and really hate waste then remove the shoots and green skin, boil them and chop them up and feed them to the birds. .
Is Potato a Root or a Stem? All You Need to Know
Tubers develop from an underground stem known as a stolon, and they act as storage for food/starch for later use by the plant.Potatoes are perennial vegetables whose cultivation dates back up to 10,000 years ago.They are believed to have originated in Peru, South America, before they spread to other parts of the World.Today, potatoes are some of the most cultivated vegetables worldwide and some of the largest food crops.Even though they originated from Peru, Northern Europe remains the leading producer of potatoes.Potatoes are generally herbaceous, with stems that grow up to 24 inches in height, green leaves, and flowers.But if you expose the potatoes to too much sunlight, the toxic levels could rise to a point where they are harmful to humans.At a point, totato plants cease growing and start “packing up” more food in the swollen section of the stolons.Potatoes can produce up to 20 tubers on a single stolon without much effort from the farmer.As mentioned earlier, tubers are types of modifications that occur on stems.These modifications also facilitate perennation (allowing plants to survive during unfavorable seasons), and they can also help in asexual production or propagation.Some stolons grow horizontally, such as in potatoes, and thickened rhizomes that are simple underground stems.This includes nodes, internodes, terminals, axillary buds, pedicels, and petioles.Nodes – This is the part where stems, leaves, buds, and other crucial elements of a plant develop.– This is the part where stems, leaves, buds, and other crucial elements of a plant develop.It prevents the development of more buds, ensuring a plant can grow vertically, also known as apical dominance.It prevents the development of more buds, ensuring a plant can grow vertically, also known as apical dominance.Lateral buds are often dormant, but they can develop into leaves, stems, or flowers.Lateral buds are often dormant, but they can develop into leaves, stems, or flowers.Leaves -Leaves are the broad, thin structures that appear along and at the end of a petiole.Potato tubers also feature a leaf scar, which is the part where it connects to the stolon, while the terminal bud appears on the other end to complete the ‘stem.’.When the bud is allowed to regenerate, shoots develop from the nodes ( “eyes”).Besides Irish potatoes, yams are another excellent example of stem tubers.Corm -Corms are slightly similar to bulbs because they both store food in a vertical stem.However, unlike the bulbs, corms have one solid structure instead of several concentric rings.This tunic offers protection against insects, waterlogging, and water loss.It stores starch and makes a good vegetable to add to a wide variety of recipes.The fact that they have nodes, internodes, terminal bulbs, lateral buds qualifies them as a stem and not a root. .
Can You Eat Sprouted Potatoes? What About Green Potatoes
When potatoes begin to sprout, the growths (those roots, eyes, and bumps) have a high concentration of compounds called glycoalkaloids that can cause a sharp, unpleasant, bitter taste.But if those spuds look like they’ve grown arms and legs and are ready to put up a fight—we’re talking super-long roots, potato eyes that look like they’re staring back at you, extensive growths that are reaching for the sun, it’s probably best to toss them.Symptoms of poisoning from solanine (the specific type of those harmful compounds found in spoiled potatoes) include everything from a fever and headache to a severely upset stomach.If you peel potatoes and find a few dark or discolored spots on the flesh, don’t sweat it—this is likely the result of bruising during transport, or concentrations of natural sugars. .
How Potato Grows
As the potato plant grows, its compound leaves manufacture starch that is transferred to the ends of its underground stems (or stolons). .
What's the Difference Between Sweet Potatoes and Yams?
A number of different yam species are grown for food, and the large tubers range in color from white to yellow, pink, or purple!They vary in taste from sweet to bitter to tasteless and tend to be a bit on the dry starchy side.Sweet potatoes, on the other hand, come from the species Ipomoea batatas, in the morning glory family, Convolvulaceae.Sweet potatoes are widely grown in the southern United States and are common in tropical America and parts of the Pacific. .
If a Potato Has Roots, Should You Eat It?
They can last a long time when stored properly, which, according to the University of Idaho Extension, should be in an area that is cool, dark, ventilated and humid.The temperature of the average home is between 65 and 75 degrees Fahrenheit, reports the University of Idaho Extension.Therefore, unless you eat your potatoes soon after buying them, you are likely to experience some sort of spoilage, whether it's a change in color or texture or sprouting.The time range in which that happens depends on many factors, including how the tuber was stored before you purchased it and the environment of your home.A change in color and the development of sprouts is a sign that levels have risen enough to become toxic when consumed.The most common effects of solanine include gastrointestinal problems, such as stomach pain, diarrhea and vomiting.The National Capital Poison Control Center reports that, although rare, there have been cases of death from consuming high levels of these toxins.According to a study published in Nutrition Journal in November 2018, consuming sprouted potatoes during pregnancy increases the risk of neural tube defects and orofacial clefts in newborns.The U.S. National Library of Medicine advises that, as long as the potato isn't green and you remove all the sprouts, it is safe to eat.
The 13 Healthiest Root Vegetables
Defined as an edible plant that grows underground, potatoes, carrots and onions are a few common examples that most are familiar with.For instance, one study found that eating 3.5 ounces (100 grams) of raw onions per day significantly reduced blood sugar levels in people with diabetes ( 4 ).Onions work well in a variety of meals and can easily be added to salads, soups, scrambled eggs, casseroles, rice or pasta dishes and many more.A review of three studies showed that eating 4 grams of white sweet potato extract each day for 12 weeks improved blood sugar control in people with diabetes ( 10 ).Due to their vitamin A content, some studies suggest that this root vegetable may also improve immune function, protect against vision loss and support skin health ( 11 , 12 , 13 ).Sweet potatoes can be baked, boiled, roasted or sautéed and enjoyed as a delicious side dish or added to everything from sandwiches to salads to breakfast bowls.Additionally, studies show that consuming more cruciferous vegetables, such as turnips, may be associated with a lower risk of stomach, breast, colorectal and lung cancer ( 16 , 17 , 18 , 19 ).Ginger makes a great addition to tea, soups, smoothies and stews and can bring a zesty zing to just about any dish.Additionally, animal studies have found that beetroot extract may have anticancer properties and may slow the growth and spread of cancer cells ( 30 , 31 ).To take advantage of the unique health benefits of beets, try roasting, juicing, pickling, boiling or steaming this delicious root vegetable.Studies have found that garlic can promote heart health by lowering blood pressure and levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides ( 34 , 35 , 36 ).It may also boost immune function, as research shows that it can decrease symptom severity and help prevent infections, such as the common cold ( 37 , 38 ).Best of all, garlic is highly versatile and can be used to amplify the flavor of your favorite savory soups, sauces, side dishes and main courses.Try adding slices to slaws, sandwiches, salads or tacos to give your dish a nutritious and tasty upgrade.It also contains the compound anethole, which gives fennel its distinct flavor, aroma and a wide array of health benefits.One rat study showed that anethole was able to modify some of the enzymes involved in the metabolism of carbs to help reduce blood sugar levels ( 44 ).Fennel can be enjoyed fresh, roasted or sautéed, as well as mixed into salads, soups, sauces and pasta dishes.Eating carrots has been linked to improved antioxidant status and lower cholesterol levels in both humans and animals ( 49 , 50 ).Carrots make a great snack when eaten raw or dipped in hummus, but they can also be cooked and used in stir-fries, stews or side dishes.The rhizomes, or root, of the plant are often ground into a spice, which is used to add a splash of color, flavor and health benefits to many dishes.Turmeric contains a compound called curcumin, which has been shown to prevent blood clot formation, lower cholesterol levels and reduce markers of inflammation in both test-tube and animal studies ( 59 , 60 , 61 ).Research in humans also suggests that curcumin may alleviate joint pain, stabilize blood sugar levels and decrease symptoms of depression ( 62 , 63 , 64 ).To reap its benefits, be sure to pair turmeric with black pepper, as the latter contains a compound that can significantly boost the absorption of curcumin in your gut ( 65 ).Not to mention, boiled potatoes are an incredibly filling food, keeping you feeling fuller for longer, which may promote weight loss ( 71 , 72 ).Rutabagas are also a good source of fiber, which can help support your digestive health and lower blood pressure and cholesterol levels ( 75 ).They also provide glucosinolates, sulfur-containing compounds that are commonly found in cruciferous vegetables that may help protect against cancer cell development and growth and prevent oxidative stress ( 76 , 77 ). .
The potato is a starchy tuber of the plant Solanum tuberosum and is a root vegetable native to the Americas. The potato was originally believed to have been domesticated by Native Americans independently in multiple locations, but later genetic studies traced a single origin, in the area of present-day southern Peru and extreme northwestern Bolivia.Potatoes were domesticated there approximately 7,000–10,000 years ago, from a species in the Solanum brevicaule complex. In the Andes region of South America, where the species is indigenous, some close relatives of the potato are cultivated.Potatoes were introduced to Europe from the Americas in the second half of the 16th century by the Spanish.As of 2014, potatoes were the world's fourth-largest food crop after maize (corn), wheat, and rice. Over 99% of potatoes presently cultivated worldwide descended from varieties that originated in the lowlands of south-central Chile. The importance of the potato as a food source and culinary ingredient varies by region and is still changing.Normal potato tubers that have been grown and stored properly produce glycoalkaloids in amounts small enough to be negligible to human health, but, if green sections of the plant (namely sprouts and skins) are exposed to light, the tuber can accumulate a high enough concentration of glycoalkaloids to affect human health.The English word potato comes from Spanish patata (the name used in Spain). The name originally referred to the sweet potato although the two plants are not closely related.The word has an unknown origin and was originally ( c. 1440) used as a term for a short knife or dagger, probably related to the Latin spad- a word root meaning "sword"; compare Spanish espada, English "spade", and spadroon.Around 1845, the name transferred to the tuber itself, the first record of this usage being in New Zealand English. The origin of the word spud has erroneously been attributed to an 18th-century activist group dedicated to keeping the potato out of Britain, calling itself the Society for the Prevention of Unwholesome Diet.It was Mario Pei's 1949 The Story of Language that can be blamed for the word's false origin.Pei wrote "the potato, for its part, was in disrepute some centuries ago.Some Englishmen who did not fancy potatoes formed a Society for the Prevention of Unwholesome Diet.other pre-20th century acronymic origins, this is false, and there is no evidence that a Society for the Prevention of Unwholesome Diet ever existed.At least seven languages (Afrikaans, Dutch, French, (West) Frisian, Hebrew, Persian and some variants of German) are known to use a term for "potato" that translates roughly (or literally) into English as "earth apple" or "ground apple".carhua Vargas Solanum andigenum f.
ccompetillo Bukasov & Lechn.digitotuberosum Vargas Solanum andigenum f. dilatatum Bukasov & Lechn.erlansonii (Bukasov & Lechnovitch) Ochoa Solanum phureja subsp.chubutense (Bitter) Hawkes Solanum tuberosum f.
conicum Bukasov & Lechn.Potato plants are herbaceous perennials that grow about 60 cm (24 in) high, depending on variety, with the leaves dying back after flowering, fruiting and tuber formation.They bear white, pink, red, blue, or purple flowers with yellow stamens.Tubers form in response to decreasing day length, although this tendency has been minimized in commercial varieties.Like all parts of the plant except the tubers, the fruit contain the toxic alkaloid solanine and are therefore unsuitable for consumption.Self-compatibility has successfully been introduced both to diploid potatoes (including a special line of S. tuberosum) by CRISPR-Cas9.Three thousand of them are found in the Andes alone, mainly in Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador, Chile, and Colombia. The Andean potato is adapted to the short-day conditions prevalent in the mountainous equatorial and tropical regions where it originated; the Chilean potato, however, native to the Chiloé Archipelago, is adapted to the long-day conditions prevalent in the higher latitude region of southern Chile. Nonetheless, genetic testing of the wide variety of cultivars and wild species affirms that all potato subspecies derive from a single origin in the area of present-day southern Peru and extreme Northwestern Bolivia (from a species in the Solanum brevicaule complex).Most modern potatoes grown in North America arrived through European settlement and not independently from the South American sources, although at least one wild potato species, Solanum fendleri, naturally ranges from Peru into Texas, where it is used in breeding for resistance to a nematode species that attacks cultivated potatoes.A secondary center of genetic variability of the potato is Mexico, where important wild species that have been used extensively in modern breeding are found, such as the hexaploid Solanum demissum, as a source of resistance to the devastating late blight disease.The distinction may also arise from variation in the comparative ratio of two different potato starch compounds: amylose and amylopectin.Amylose, a long-chain molecule, diffuses from the starch granule when cooked in water, and lends itself to dishes where the potato is mashed.Varieties that contain a slightly higher amylopectin content, which is a highly branched molecule, help the potato retain its shape after being boiled in water.They are typically small in size and tender, with a loose skin, and flesh containing a lower level of starch than other potatoes. They are distinct from "baby", "salad" or "fingerling" potatoes, which are small and tend to have waxy flesh, but are grown to maturity and can be stored for months before being sold.The European Cultivated Potato Database (ECPD) is an online collaborative database of potato variety descriptions that is updated and maintained by the Scottish Agricultural Science Agency within the framework of the European Cooperative Programme for Crop Genetic Resources Networks (ECP/GR)—which is run by the International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI).Dozens of potato cultivars have been selectively bred specifically for their skin or, more commonly, flesh color, including gold, red, and blue varieties that contain varying amounts of phytochemicals, including carotenoids for gold/yellow or polyphenols for red or blue cultivars. Carotenoid compounds include provitamin A alpha-carotene and beta-carotene, which are converted to the essential nutrient, vitamin A, during digestion.Anthocyanins mainly responsible for red or blue pigmentation in potato cultivars do not have nutritional significance, but are used for visual variety and consumer appeal.McDonald's, Burger King, Frito-Lay, and Procter & Gamble announced they would not use genetically modified potatoes, and Monsanto published its intent to discontinue the line in March 2001.BASF developed the Amflora potato, which was modified to express antisense RNA to inactivate the gene for granule bound starch synthase, an enzyme which catalyzes the formation of amylose.Nevertheless, under EU rules, individual countries have the right to decide whether they will allow this potato to be grown on their territory.Commercial planting of 'Amflora' was expected in the Czech Republic and Germany in the spring of 2010, and Sweden and the Netherlands in subsequent years. Another GM potato variety developed by BASF is 'Fortuna' which was made resistant to late blight by adding two resistance genes, blb1 and blb2, which originate from the Mexican wild potato Solanum bulbocastanum. In October 2011 BASF requested cultivation and marketing approval as a feed and food from the EFSA. In November 2014, the USDA approved a genetically modified potato developed by J.R.
Simplot Company, which contains genetic modifications that prevent bruising and produce less acrylamide when fried than conventional potatoes; the modifications do not cause new proteins to be made, but rather prevent proteins from being made via RNA interference.Genetically modified varieties have met public resistance in the United States and in the European Union.Ferreira et al. (2010) found that the genes for starch biosynthesis start to be transcribed at the same time as sucrose synthase activity begins.This transcription - including starch synthase - also shows a diurnal rhythm, correlating with the sucrose supply arriving from the leaves.The potato was first domesticated in the region of modern-day southern Peru and northwestern Bolivia by pre-Columbian farmers, around Lake Titicaca.The earliest archaeologically verified potato tuber remains have been found at the coastal site of Ancon (central Peru), dating to 2500 BC.According to conservative estimates, the introduction of the potato was responsible for a quarter of the growth in Old World population and urbanization between 1700 and 1900. In the Altiplano, potatoes provided the principal energy source for the Inca civilization, its predecessors, and its Spanish successor.The staple was subsequently conveyed by European (possibly including Russian) mariners to territories and ports throughout the world, especially their colonies. The potato was slow to be adopted by European and colonial farmers, but after 1750 it became an important food staple and field crop and played a major role in the European 19th century population boom. However, lack of genetic diversity, due to the very limited number of varieties initially introduced, left the crop vulnerable to disease.In 1845, a plant disease known as late blight, caused by the fungus-like oomycete Phytophthora infestans, spread rapidly through the poorer communities of western Ireland as well as parts of the Scottish Highlands, resulting in the crop failures that led to the Great Irish Famine.In 2020, world production of potatoes was 359 million tonnes, led by China with 22% of the total (table).Other major producers were India, Russia, Ukraine and the United States.It remains an essential crop in Europe (especially northern and eastern Europe), where per capita production is still the highest in the world, but the most rapid expansion over the past few decades has occurred in southern and eastern Asia.According to the United States Department of Agriculture, a typical raw potato is 79% water, 17% carbohydrates (88% is starch), 2% protein, and contains negligible fat (see table).The GI of potatoes can vary considerably depending on the cultivar, growing conditions and storage, preparation methods (by cooking method, whether it is eaten hot or cold, whether it is mashed or cubed or consumed whole), and accompanying foods consumed (especially the addition of various high-fat or high-protein toppings). Consuming reheated or pre-cooked and cooled potatoes may yield a lower GI effect due to the formation of resistant starch.In the UK, potatoes are not considered by the National Health Service (NHS) as counting or contributing towards the recommended daily five portions of fruit and vegetables, the 5-A-Day program.This table shows the nutrient content of potatoes next to other major staple foods, each one measured in its respective raw state on a dry weight basis to account for their different water contents, even though staple foods are not commonly eaten raw and are usually sprouted or cooked before eating.In sprouted and cooked form, the relative nutritional and anti-nutritional contents of each of these grains (or other foods) may be different from the values in this table.Each nutrient (every row) has the highest number highlighted to show the staple food with the greatest amount in a dry 100 gram portion.Potatoes contain toxic compounds known as glycoalkaloids, of which the most prevalent are solanine and chaconine.These compounds, which protect the potato plant from its predators, are generally concentrated in its leaves, flowers, sprouts, and fruits (in contrast to the tubers). In a summary of several studies, the glycoalkaloid content was highest in the flowers and sprouts and lowest in the tuber flesh.Exposure to light, physical damage, and age increase glycoalkaloid content within the tuber.The concentration of glycoalkaloids in wild potatoes is sufficient to produce toxic effects in humans.Glycoalkaloid poisoning may cause headaches, diarrhea, cramps, and, in severe cases, coma and death.Light exposure causes greening from chlorophyll synthesis, giving a visual clue as to which areas of the tuber may have become more toxic.However, this does not provide a definitive guide, as greening and glycoalkaloid accumulation can occur independently of each other.The Lenape variety was released in 1967 but was withdrawn in 1970 as it contained high levels of glycoalkaloids.However, when these commercial varieties turn green, they can still approach solanine concentrations of 1000 mg/kg (1000 ppmw).In normal potatoes, analysis has shown solanine levels may be as little as 3.5% of the breeders' maximum, with 7–187 mg/kg being found.To be disease free, the areas where seed potatoes are grown are selected with care. These locations are selected for their cold, hard winters that kill pests and summers with long sunshine hours for optimum growth.During the first phase, sprouts emerge from the seed potatoes and root growth begins.In the third phase the tips of the stolons swell forming new tubers and the shoots continue to grow and flowers typically develop soon after.Potatoes grown in a tall bag are common in gardens as they minimize the amount of digging required at harvest.Since exposure to light leads to an undesirable greening of the skins and the development of solanine as a protection from the sun's rays, growers cover surface tubers.Commercial growers cover them by piling additional soil around the base of the plant as it grows (called "hilling" up, or in British English "earthing up").An alternative method, used by home gardeners and smaller-scale growers, involves covering the growing area with mulches such as straw or plastic sheets.Home gardeners often plant a piece of potato with two or three eyes in a hill of mounded soil.Even cold weather makes potatoes more susceptible to bruising and possibly later rotting, which can quickly ruin a large stored crop.The historically significant Phytophthora infestans (late blight) remains an ongoing problem in Europe and the United States.Since its eggs can survive in the soil for several years, crop rotation is recommended.According to an Environmental Working Group analysis of USDA and FDA pesticide residue tests performed from 2000 through 2008, 84% of the 2,216 tested potato samples contained detectable traces of at least one pesticide.This is transported up an apron chain consisting of steel links several feet wide, which separates some of the dirt.The most complex designs use vine choppers and shakers, along with a blower system to separate the potatoes from the plant.Further inspection and separation occurs when the potatoes are unloaded from the field vehicles and put into storage.Curing is normally done at relatively warm temperatures (10 to 16 °C or 50 to 60 °F) with high humidity and good gas-exchange if at all possible.Storage facilities need to be carefully designed to keep the potatoes alive and slow the natural process of sprouting which involves the breakdown of starch.The discovery of acrylamides in starchy foods in 2002 has led to international health concerns.They are believed to be probable carcinogens and their occurrence in cooked foods is being studied for potentially influencing health problems.Chlorpropham (CIPC) is the main chemical used, but toxicity concerns have led to it being banned in the EU. Alternatives are applying maleic hydrazide to the crop whilst it is still growing or the use of ethylene, spearmint and orange oils and 1,4-dimethylnaphthalene.Under optimum conditions in commercial warehouses, potatoes can be stored for up to 10–12 months.Mechanical ventilation is used at various points during the process to prevent condensation and the accumulation of carbon dioxide.The world dedicated 18.6 million hectares (46 million acres) to potato cultivation in 2010; the world average yield was 17.4 tonnes per hectare (7.8 short tons per acre).The United States was the most productive country, with a nationwide average yield of 44.3 tonnes per hectare (19.8 short tons per acre).There is a big gap among various countries between high and low yields, even with the same variety of potato.Average potato yields in developed economies ranges between 38 and 44 tonnes per hectare.China and India accounted for over a third of world's production in 2010, and had yields of 14.7 and 19.9 tonnes per hectare respectively. The yield gap between farms in developing economies and developed economies represents an opportunity loss of over 400 million tonnes of potato, or an amount greater than 2010 world potato production. The food energy yield of potatoes—about 95 gigajoules per hectare (9.2 million kilocalories per acre)—is higher than that of maize (78 GJ/ha or 7.5×10 ^ 6 kcal/acre), rice (77 GJ/ha or 7.4×10 ^ 6 kcal/acre), wheat (31 GJ/ha or 3×10 ^ 6 kcal/acre), or soybeans (29 GJ/ha or 2.8×10 ^ 6 kcal/acre).Climate change is predicted to have significant effects on global potato production. Like many crops, potatoes are likely to be affected by changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide, temperature and precipitation, as well as interactions between these factors.Unlike many foods, potatoes can also be easily cooked in a microwave oven and still retain nearly all of their nutritional value, provided they are covered in ventilated plastic wrap to prevent moisture from escaping; this method produces a meal very similar to a steamed potato, while retaining the appearance of a conventionally baked potato.Livestock-grade potatoes, considered too small and/or blemished to sell or market for human use but suitable for fodder use, have been called chats in some dialects. Some farmers prefer to steam them rather than feed them raw and are equipped to do so efficiently.Some farmers prefer to steam them rather than feed them raw and are equipped to do so efficiently.Peruvian cuisine naturally contains the potato as a primary ingredient in many dishes, as around 3,000 varieties of this tuber are grown there.French-fried potatoes are a typical ingredient in Peruvian stir-fries, including the classic dish lomo saltado.Chuño is a freeze-dried potato product traditionally made by Quechua and Aymara communities of Peru and Bolivia, and is known in various countries of South America, including Peru, Bolivia, Argentina, and Chile.In Chile's Chiloé Archipelago, potatoes are the main ingredient of many dishes, including milcaos, chapaleles, curanto and chochoca.In the UK, potatoes form part of the traditional staple, fish and chips.Roast potatoes are commonly served as part of a Sunday roast dinner and mashed potatoes form a major component of several other traditional dishes, such as shepherd's pie, bubble and squeak, and bangers and mash.The Tattie scone is a popular Scottish dish containing potatoes.Colcannon is a traditional Irish food made with mashed potato, shredded kale or cabbage, and onion; champ is a similar dish.Boxty pancakes are eaten throughout Ireland, although associated especially with the North, and in Irish diaspora communities; they are traditionally made with grated potatoes, soaked to loosen the starch and mixed with flour, buttermilk and baking powder.A variant eaten and sold in Lancashire, especially Liverpool, is made with cooked and mashed potatoes.In the UK, game chips are a traditional accompaniment to roast gamebirds such as pheasant, grouse, partridge and quail.Powdered cooked potato has been sold in the UK since the 1960s as Smash and is used as a food for camping  and domestically.Halušky dumplings are made from a batter consisting of flour and grated potatoes.In Germany, Northern (Finland, Latvia and especially Scandinavian countries), Eastern Europe (Russia, Belarus and Ukraine) and Poland, newly harvested, early ripening varieties are considered a special delicacy.Boiled whole and served un-peeled with dill, these "new potatoes" are traditionally consumed with Baltic herring.Bauernfrühstück (literally farmer's breakfast) is a warm German dish made from fried potatoes, eggs, ham and vegetables.They are a type of dumpling made from grated raw potatoes boiled in water and usually stuffed with minced meat, although sometimes dry cottage cheese (curd) or mushrooms are used instead.Stamppot, a traditional Dutch meal, is based on mashed potatoes mixed with vegetables.In France, the most notable potato dish is the Hachis Parmentier, named after Antoine-Augustin Parmentier, a French pharmacist, nutritionist, and agronomist who, in the late 18th century, was instrumental in the acceptance of the potato as an edible crop in the country.Gratin dauphinois, consisting of baked thinly sliced potatoes with cream or milk, and tartiflette, with Reblochon cheese, are also widespread.In the north of Italy, in particular, in the Friuli region of the northeast, potatoes serve to make a type of pasta called gnocchi.Potato pancakes are popular all over Central Europe, and are also known in Scandinavia, and in Jewish cuisine.A traditional Canary Islands dish is Canarian wrinkly potatoes or papas arrugadas.In the US, potatoes have become one of the most widely consumed crops and thus have a variety of preparation methods and condiments.French fries and often hash browns are commonly found in typical American fast-food burger "joints" and cafeterias.At more formal dinners, a common practice includes taking small red potatoes, slicing them, and roasting them in an iron skillet.Among American Jews, the practice of eating latkes (fried potato pancakes) is common during the festival of Hanukkah.The Acadian poutine is a ball of grated and mashed potato, salted, sometimes filled with pork in the centre, and boiled.Poutine, by contrast, is a hearty serving of French fries, fresh cheese curds and hot gravy.2 are rated as lower in quality due to their appearance (e.g.
blemishes or bruises, pointy ends).Poutine, a Canadian dish of fried potatoes, cheese curds, and gravy.In India, the most popular potato dishes are aloo ki sabzi, batata vada, and samosa, which is spicy mashed potato mixed with a small amount of vegetable stuffed in conical dough, and deep fried.Potatoes are also a major ingredient as fast food items, such as aloo chaat, where they are deep fried and served with chutney.It is a thin pancake of rice and pulse batter rolled over spicy smashed potato and eaten with sambhar and chutney.Poori in south India in particular in Tamil Nadu is almost always taken with smashed potato masal.Vada pav is a popular vegetarian fast food dish in Mumbai and other regions in the Maharashtra in India.Aloo posto (a curry with potatoes and poppy seeds) is immensely popular in East India, especially Bengal.The Aloo gosht, Potato and meat curry, is one of the popular dishes in South Asia, especially in Pakistan.However, it is used in northern China where rice is not easily grown, with a popular dish being 青椒土豆丝 (qīng jiāo tǔ dòu sī), made with green pepper, vinegar and thin slices of potato.In the winter, roadside sellers in northern China will also sell roasted potatoes.The Moche culture from Northern Peru made ceramics from the earth, water, and fire.This pottery was a sacred substance, formed in significant shapes and used to represent important themes.During the late 19th century, numerous images of potato harvesting appeared in European art, including the works of Willem Witsen and Anton Mauve.He deliberately chose coarse and ugly models, thinking that they would be natural and unspoiled in his finished work.Jean-François Millet's The Potato Harvest depicts peasants working in the plains between Barbizon and Chailly.Millet's technique for this work incorporated paste-like pigments thickly applied over a coarsely textured canvas. .