Did you know that potatoes provide the carbohydrate, potassium and energy you need to perform at your best?A medium 5.3 oz skin on potato contains 27 mg of Vitamin C, which is 30% of the daily value.Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid, is a water-soluble vitamin that is essential for humans.Vitamin C is found naturally only in fruits and vegetables.1 Potatoes are an excellent source of vitamin C and contribute significantly to the daily vitamin C requirements for Americans.2,3.Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US).Food sources of energy and nutrients among adults in the US: NHANES 2003–2006.A medium 5.3 oz skin on potato contains 620 mg of Potassium, which is 15% of the daily value.Potatoes provide one of the most affordable sources of potassium, significantly more than those foods commonly associated with being high in potassium, including bananas, oranges and mushrooms.2.Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.Potassium: Food Sources Ranked by Amounts of Potassium and Energy per Standard Food Portions and per 100 Grams of Foods.Dietary Reference Intakes for Sodium and Potassium.Washington, DC; The National Academies Press; 2019.A medium 5.3 oz skin-on potato contains 26 grams of carbohydrates.The primary function of carbohydrates is to provide energy to the cells of the body, particularly the brain.1 Carbohydrates are also an important fuel for the muscles during exercise, particularly intense and/or prolonged exercise, and as such are key to optimal athletic performance.The current RDA for carbohydrates is 130 grams per day based on the amount needed to optimally support the central nervous system (i.e., the brain).Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine of the National Academies.Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy,Carbohydrate, Fiber, fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein and Amino Acids.2011; 29(Suppl 1): S17-27 Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine of the National Academies.Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein and Amino Acids.A medium 5.3 oz skin on potato has 3 grams of protein.Protein is an important component of almost every cell and tissue in the body.A medium-size 5.3 oz potato with skin-on provides 3 grams of plant-based protein.The Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend eating a variety of plant-based foods to improve overall health.3.Providing energy: Protein provides 4 calories per gram (similar to carbohydrate); however, under normal circumstances protein contributes little to energy production.The current recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for protein is .8 grams per kilogram of body weight and the acceptable macronutrient distribution range (AMDR) is 10%-35% of total daily energy intake from protein.One 5.3-ounce skin-on potato is a source of 3 grams of plant-based protein.Current dietary guidance, including the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, recommends substituting plant-based proteins for some animal-based proteins to improve overall health and support the environment.The Potato in the Human Diet.A medium 5.3 oz skin on potato has 2g of dietary fiber.Dietary fiber is a type of complex carbohydrate found in vegetables, fruits and whole grains.Most Americans get only about half of the recommended amount of dietary fiber and, thus, could benefit from consuming more fiber-rich foods.A common misconception is that all of the fiber in a potato is found in the skin.Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Health Implications of Dietary Fiber.https://health.gov/dietaryguidelines/2015-scientific-report/Accessed December 27, 2018.The Potato in the Human Diet.Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids.Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.A medium 5.3 oz skin on potato is good source of Vitamin B6 providing 10% of the recommended daily value.Vitamin B6 is a water-soluble vitamin that plays important roles in carbohydrate and protein metabolism.It helps the body make nonessential amino acids needed to make various body proteins.A medium 5.3 oz skin on potato provides 6% of the recommended daily value of iron, Iron is a mineral involved in making proteins that carry oxygen to all parts of the body, including to the muscles.Why Potatoes Fuel Performance.of potassium (620 mg; 15% daily value), vitamin C (27 mg; 30% daily value) and energy (110 calories) that your athletes need to perform their best.Carbohydrate is the primary fuel for the brain and a key source of energy for muscles.Carbohydrate is the primary fuel for the brain and a key source of energy for muscles.A low-cost performance vegetable and provides 3 g (6% daily value) of plant-based protein.and provides 3 g (6% daily value) of plant-based protein.), there’s a potato option to fuel your athlete’s body and brain throughout the day.), there’s a potato option to fuel your athlete’s body and brain throughout the day.Potatoes and Sweet Potatoes are more similar than you think…. .
Potatoes: Health Benefits, Nutrients per Serving, Recipes, and More
However, this all-purpose vegetable has some surprising health and nutrition benefits.Fiber can help prevent heart disease by keeping cholesterol and blood sugar levels in check.The fiber found in potatoes is a special type called “resistant starch,” which has the health benefits of both soluble fiber and insoluble fiber and causes less gas than other types of fiber.So, don’t be afraid to eat your potato skins.When you don’t have enough potassium in your diet, your body retains extra sodium, and too much sodium raises your blood pressure. .
Potatoes 101: Nutrition Facts and Health Effects
Native to South America, potatoes were brought to Europe in the 16th century and are now grown in countless varieties worldwide.They’re generally eaten boiled, baked, or fried and frequently served as a side dish or snack.Nutrition Facts Cooked potatoes with skin are a good source of many vitamins and minerals, such as potassium and vitamin C. Aside from being high in water when fresh, potatoes are primarily composed of carbs and contain moderate amounts of protein and fiber — but almost no fat.The nutrients found in 2/3 cup (100 grams) of boiled potatoes — cooked with the skin but without salt — are ( 1 ): Calories: 87.Potatoes usually rank high on the glycemic index (GI), making them unsuitable for people with diabetes.They also contain varying amounts of resistant starch, a type of fiber that feeds the friendly bacteria in your gut and improves digestive health ( 12 ).In fact, compared to other common food crops — such as wheat, rice, and corn — potatoes have the lowest amount of protein.Varieties with purple or red skin and flesh contain the highest amounts of polyphenols, a type of antioxidant (19).An antioxidant that accounts for about 1/3 of total polyphenol content, catechin is highest in purple potatoes (19, 21 ).Found in potatoes with yellow flesh, lutein is a carotenoid antioxidant that may boost eye health ( 10 , 16 , 22 ).Found in potatoes with yellow flesh, lutein is a carotenoid antioxidant that may boost eye health ( , , ).A class of toxic phytonutrients produced by potatoes as a natural defense against insects and other threats, glycoalkaloids may have harmful effects in large amounts ( 20 ).SUMMARY Potatoes harbor some healthy antioxidants that are responsible for many of their health benefits and mostly concentrated in the skin.Other substances in potatoes that may promote lower blood pressure include chlorogenic acid and kukoamines ( 25 , 26 ).Another small trial in 11 men showed that eating boiled potatoes as a side with pork steak led to less calorie intake during the meal when compared to pasta or white rice ( 29 ).Even though PI2 may suppress appetite when taken in its pure form, it is unclear whether it has any effect in the trace amounts present in potatoes.In low doses, glycoalkaloids usually cause mild symptoms, such as headache, stomach pain, diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting ( 35 ).In more serious cases, the symptoms include neurological disorders, rapid breathing, fast heartbeat, low blood pressure, fever, and even death ( 36 , 37 ).In mice, long-term intake of glycoalkaloids may increase the risk of cancer in the brain, lungs, breasts, and thyroid ( 38 ).Other animal studies indicate that the low levels of glycoalkaloids likely found in the human diet may exacerbate inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) ( 39 ).Potatoes rich in glycoalkaloids have a bitter taste and cause a burning sensation in your mouth, an effect that may be a warning sign of potential toxicity ( 41 , 42 ).Animal studies indicate that acrylamides may increase cancer risk and harm the brain and nervous system ( 52 , 53 , 54 , 55 , 56 , 57 ).In contrast, a few studies have linked acrylamides with an increased risk of cancer of the breasts, ovaries, kidneys, mouth, and esophagus ( 62 , 63 , 64 , 65 , 66 , 67 ).
Potato nutrition facts & health benefits
But when prepared in these ways, they can lead to weight gain, diabetes and heart disease, according to the Harvard School of Public Health.In fact, a study published in 2017 in The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition found that people who ate fried potatoes twice a week saw an increased risk of death.They may also help with digestion, heart health, blood pressure and even cancer prevention.Purple potatoes are especially good sources of phytonutrients and antioxidants.A 2012 study published in the Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry found that six to eight small purple potatoes twice a day helped lower blood pressure and risk of heart disease and stroke among people who were overweight and suffering from hypertension.Jarzabkowski said that the fiber found in potatoes could help lower cholesterol by binding with cholesterol in the blood.Vitamin C can help prevent everything from scurvy to the common cold, and potatoes are full of this nutrient, with about 45 percent of the recommended daily intake per medium baked potato, according to the Washington State Potato Commission.The organization suggests that people with arthritis try cutting nightshade vegetables from their diets for two weeks to see if symptoms improve.For example, a 2011 study published in the Journal of Nutrition found that potatoes might reduce inflammation.The largest health benefit offered by potatoes is how they can help with digestion due to their high fiber content, Jarzabkowski said.Potatoes' high level of carbohydrates makes them easy to digest, while their fiber-filled skin can help keep you regular.Heart health.Jarzabkowski said fiber is associated with clearing cholesterol from blood vessels; vitamins C and B6 help reduce free radicals; and carotenoids help maintain proper heart functioning."Sodium and potassium, which are found in potato peels, are two important electrolytes, and athletes lose them in sweat.".A 2017 study published by the Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry found that consuming purple potatoes might reduce the risk of colon cancer.The study looked at groups of pigs on three different diets, one of which was supplemented with purple potatoes.Health risks.Nevertheless, your health would suffer from eating nothing but potatoes, said Jarzabkowski.Jarzabkowski said, "The last thing I'd recommend to a diabetic is a potato.".Furthermore, a 2016 study in The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition found that different individuals respond to a food’s glycemic index value in substantially different ways.Use it as a carb rather than as your only vegetable," she said.The Harvard School of Public Health tracked the diet and lifestyle of 120,000 men and women for about 20 years and found that people who increased their consumption of French fries and baked or mashed potatoes gained more weight over time — as much as 3.4 lbs.The risk held for women who ate baked, boiled, mashed or fried potatoes and for men who ate fried potatoes.Men who ate the equivalent amount of potato chips, however, did not see their risk for higher blood pressure increase.Baking a potato is the best way to prepare it, as baking, or microwaving, a potato causes the lowest amount of nutrients to be lost, she said.In a potato, those water-soluble nutrients include B-complex vitamins, vitamin C, potassium and calcium.As much as 80 percent of a potato's vitamin C may go down the drain if you boil the vegetable.However you cook a potato, try to eat the skin.This part of the plant is called a tuber, which functions to provide food to the leafy part of the plant.Idaho, whose license plates bear the slogan “Famous Potatoes,” is the top potato-producing state, but spuds are grown in all 50 U.S. states.(20 billion kg) of the vegetable.(56 kg) of potatoes per year; Germans eat about twice as much.For many years, people thought that eating potatoes would cause leprosy.French fries were introduced to the United States by Thomas Jefferson, who served them in the White House during his presidency (1801-1809).The Irish Potato Famine: In the 1840s, an outbreak of potato blight swept through Europe and wiped out the potato crop in many countries.Another million left Ireland, mostly for Canada and the United States.The potato was the first vegetable to be grown in space. .
Potato, nutrition and diet
Key points The potato is a good source of dietary energy and some micronutrients, and its protein content is very high in comparison with other roots and tubers.Potato is a versatile, carbohydrate-rich food highly popular worldwide and prepared and served in a variety of ways.On a dry weight basis, the protein content of potato is similar to that of cereals and is very high in comparison with other roots and tubers.It is a good source of vitamins B1, B3 and B6 and minerals such as potassium, phosphorus and magnesium, and contains folate, pantothenic acid and riboflavin.Since the starch in raw potato cannot be digested by humans, they are prepared for consumption by boiling (with or without the skin), baking or frying.Each preparation method affects potato composition in a different way, but all reduce fibre and protein content, due to leaching into cooking water and oil, destruction by heat treatment or chemical changes such as oxidation.However, where other staple crops are available to meet energy requirements, potato should not replace them but rather supplement the diet with its vitamins and mineral content and high quality protein.Glycoalkaloids are normally found at low levels in the tuber, and occur in the greatest concentrations just beneath the skin.This factsheet was prepared by Sylvana Prokop and Janice Albert of FAO's Nutrition and Consumer Protection Division. .
Potatoes: Health benefits, nutrients, recipe tips, and risks
However, the fiber, vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals it provides can help ward off disease and benefit human health.Potatoes contain important nutrients, even when cooked, that can benefit human health in various ways.Here we look at 10 ways in which the potato might contribute to a healthful lifestyle, including preventing osteoporosis, maintaining heart health, and reducing the risk of infection.3) Heart health The potato’s fiber, potassium, vitamin C, and vitamin B6 content, coupled with its lack of cholesterol, all support heart health.early brain development One large potato contains 57 mg of choline.Fiber intake from fruits and vegetables like potatoes are associated with a lowered risk of colorectal cancer.This plays a vital role in energy metabolism, by breaking down carbohydrates and proteins into glucose and amino acids.It also provides important nutrients, such as vitamin C, vitamin B6, and various minerals.This much white potato, baked with skin, contains : 94 calories.2.1 grams of dietary fiber.544 mg of potassium.12.6 mg of vitamin C.0.211 mg of vitamin B6.Sodium: Whole, unprocessed potatoes contain very little sodium, only 10 mg per 100 g (3.5 ounces), or less than 1 percent of the suggested daily limit.Some evidence suggests that alpha-lipoic acid can help control blood glucose levels, improve vasodilation, protect against retinopathy in diabetic patients, and preserve brain and nerve tissue.Antioxidants may help prevent cell damage and cancer and promote healthy digestion and cardiovascular functions.Fiber: The fiber in potatoes helps to maintain a healthy digestive system and circulation.Here are some ideas: Baking : Use starchy potatoes, such as russets.Washing potatoes early removes the protective coating from the skins.Preparing and cooking potatoes The vitamin, mineral, and fiber content of potato is mostly in the skin,so it is best to eat them with the skin left on.Cooking and eating the skins helps preserve the nutrients. .
The Nutritional Value of Potatoes
Nowadays, Central and Eastern Europeans are the highest consumers, but potatoes play a role in diets all across the continent, with an average per capita consumption of 94 kg in 2005.1 Listed below are important and interesting nutritional aspects that are worth considering in the discussion on the contribution of potatoes towards a healthy balanced diet.2.Although this is less than 10% of the daily adult requirement, potatoes are a good source of the amino acids lysine and tryptophan and combined with milk or eggs make for a high quality protein food.Potatoes are a source of fibre, which contributes to the feeling of fullness, and supports healthy digestive functions.Green patches indicate higher levels of glycoalkaloids such as solanine, which may lead to ill health if consumed in large amounts.Vitamin C is required for healthy skin, teeth, gums, muscles and bones, and it also helps with the absorption of iron from plant foods, which is poorly available to the body otherwise.A medium serving of boiled potatoes (180 g) contains more than one sixth of the adult daily requirements for vitamins B 1 , B 6 and folate.These B group vitamins have many functions in the body including being essential components in the metabolism of carbohydrates to provide energy, and maintaining a healthy skin and nervous system.A boiled medium portion of potatoes (180 g) also provides about one tenth of an adult’s daily requirement of magnesium and iron.Public health advice is to be careful not to consume too much salt, because of an association between sodium intake and the risk of high blood pressure (hypertension).Other starchy foods are equally low in sodium, but the potassium content in potatoes is significantly higher than in, for instance, pasta.The combination of a high potassium and a low sodium content makes potatoes a healthy food for people trying to manage their blood pressure.There is also some loss of nutrients during storage, and general advice is that potatoes should be kept in dry, dark and cool conditions. .
Plant species producing the tuber used as a staple food.Potato Potato cultivars appear in a variety of colors, shapes, and sizes.& Bukasov Solanum andigenum convar.Solanum andigenum f. alccai-huarmi Bukasov & Lechn.Solanum andigenum f. ancacc-maquin Bukasov & Lechn.aya-papa Bukasov & Lechn.Solanum andigenum var.Solanum andigenum var.Solanum andigenum var.Solanum andigenum f. caiceda Bukasov Solanum andigenum var.Solanum andigenum var.Solanum andigenum var.ckello-huaccoto Bukasov & Lechn.ex Bukasov Solanum andigenum var.Solanum andigenum var.Solanum andigenum var.Solanum andigenum var.hederiforme Bukasov Solanum andigenum var.Solanum andigenum f.
huaca-layra Bukasov & Lechn.Solanum andigenum var.Solanum andigenum f. huaman-uma Bukasov & Lechn.Solanum andigenum var.Solanum andigenum var.Solanum andigenum var.Solanum andigenum f.
lecke-umo Bukasov & Lechn.Solanum andigenum f. lilacinoflorum Bukasov Solanum andigenum f. lisarassa Bukasov Solanum andigenum f.
llutuc-runtum Lechn.ex Bukasov Solanum andigenum convar.Solanum andigenum var.Solanum andigenum f. magnicorollatum Bukasov & Lechn.Solanum andigenum var.ex Bukasov Solanum andigenum f.
pallidum Bukasov & Lechn.Solanum andigenum var.Solanum andigenum f. ppacc-nacha Bukasov & Lechn.puca-mata Lechn.Solanum andigenum var.Solanum andigenum var.Solanum andigenum var.socco-huaccoto Bukasov & Lechn.Solanum andigenum var.Solanum andigenum f.
tocanum Bukasov Solanum andigenum f. tolucanum Bukasov Solanum andigenum f. uncuna Bukasov & Lechn.& Bukasov Solanum chaucha var.Berthault Solanum chilotanum Hawkes Solanum chilotanum var.& Bukasov Solanum goniocalyx var.ex Bukasov Solanum macmillanii Bukasov Solanum maglia var.& Bukasov Solanum phureja var.& Bukasov Solanum rybinii var.& Bukasov) Hawkes Solanum rybinii var.& Bukasov Solanum tuberosum f.
acuminatum Bukasov & Lechn.& Bukasov) Hawkes Solanum tuberosum var.Solanum tuberosum f. araucanum Bukasov & Lechn.Solanum tuberosum f.
auriculatum Bukasov & Lechn.Solanum tuberosum f. brachykalukon Bukasov & Lechn.Solanum tuberosum f. brevipapillosum Bukasov & Lechn.Solanum tuberosum f. camota Bukasov & Lechn.Solanum tuberosum f.
chaped Bukasov & Lechn.chilotanum Bukasov & Lechn.chubutense (Bitter) Hawkes Solanum tuberosum f. conicum Bukasov & Lechn.Solanum tuberosum f. contortum Bukasov & Lechn.Solanum tuberosum f.
coraila Bukasov & Lechn.Solanum tuberosum f. crassifilamentum Bukasov & Lechn.Solanum tuberosum f. elongatum Bukasov & Lechn.Solanum tuberosum f. enode Bukasov & Lechn.ex Bukasov Solanum tuberosum f. infectum Bukasov & Lechn.Solanum tuberosum f. mahuinhue Bukasov & Lechn.Solanum tuberosum f.
milagro Ochoa Solanum tuberosum f. montticum Bukasov & Lechn.Solanum tuberosum f.
oculosum Bukasov & Lechn.Solanum tuberosum f. ovatum Bukasov & Lechn.Solanum tuberosum f. pichuna Bukasov & Lechn.Solanum tuberosum f. pillicuma Bukasov & Lechn.Solanum tuberosum f.
sebastianum Bukasov & Lechn.Solanum tuberosum f. tenuipedicellatum Bukasov & Lechn.Solanum tuberosum f. thalassinum Bukasov & Lechn.Solanum tuberosum f.
viride Bukasov & Lechn.The potato is a starchy tuber of the plant Solanum tuberosum and is a root vegetable native to the Americas, with the plant itself being a perennial in the nightshade family Solanaceae.Wild potato species, originating in modern-day Peru, can be found throughout the Americas, from Canada to southern Chile. The potato was originally believed to have been domesticated by Native Americans independently in multiple locations, but later genetic testing of the wide variety of cultivars and wild species traced a single origin for potatoes, in the area of present-day southern Peru and extreme northwestern Bolivia. In the Andes region of South America, where the species is indigenous, some close relatives of the potato are cultivated.Potatoes were introduced to Europe from the Americas in the second half of the 16th century by the Spanish.Today they are a staple food in many parts of the world and an integral part of much of the world's food supply. The importance of the potato as a food source and culinary ingredient varies by region and is still changing.It remains an essential crop in Europe, especially Northern and Eastern Europe, where per capita production is still the highest in the world, while the most rapid expansion in production over the past few decades has occurred in southern and eastern Asia, with China and India leading the world in overall production as of 2018.Normal potato tubers that have been grown and stored properly produce glycoalkaloids in amounts small enough to be negligible to human health, but if green sections of the plant (namely sprouts and skins) are exposed to light, the tuber can accumulate a high enough concentration of glycoalkaloids to affect human health.The 16th-century English herbalist John Gerard referred to sweet potatoes as common potatoes, and used the terms bastard potatoes and Virginia potatoes for the species we now call potato. Potatoes are occasionally referred to as Irish potatoes or white potatoes in the United States, to distinguish them from sweet potatoes.The name spud for a potato comes from the digging of soil (or a hole) prior to the planting of potatoes. The origin of the word spud has erroneously been attributed to an 18th-century activist group dedicated to keeping the potato out of Britain, calling itself the Society for the Prevention of Unwholesome Diet.Flowers of a potato plant.Potato plants.After flowering, potato plants produce small green fruits that resemble green cherry tomatoes, each containing about 300 seeds.New varieties grown from seed can be propagated vegetatively by planting tubers, pieces of tubers cut to include at least one or two eyes, or cuttings, a practice used in greenhouses for the production of healthy seed tubers.Apart from the 5,000 cultivated varieties, there are about 200 wild species and subspecies, many of which can be cross-bred with cultivated varieties.Cross-breeding has been done repeatedly to transfer resistances to certain pests and diseases from the gene pool of wild species to the gene pool of cultivated potato species.The major species grown worldwide is Solanum tuberosum (a tetraploid with 48 chromosomes), and modern varieties of this species are the most widely cultivated. Nonetheless, genetic testing of the wide variety of cultivars and wild species affirms that all potato subspecies derive from a single origin in the area of present-day southern Peru and extreme Northwestern Bolivia (from a species in the Solanum brevicaule complex).Most modern potatoes grown in North America arrived through European settlement and not independently from the South American sources, although at least one wild potato species, Solanum fendleri, naturally ranges from Peru into Texas, where it is used in breeding for resistance to a nematode species that attacks cultivated potatoes.Varieties. Around 80 varieties are commercially available in the UK. In general, varieties are categorized into a few main groups based on common characteristics, such as russet potatoes (rough brown skin), red potatoes, white potatoes, yellow potatoes (also called Yukon potatoes) and purple potatoes.They are typically small in size and tender, with a loose skin, and flesh containing a lower level of starch than other potatoes. They are distinct from "baby", "salad" or "fingerling" potatoes, which are small and tend to have waxy flesh, but are grown to maturity and can be stored for months before being sold.Anthocyanins mainly responsible for red or blue pigmentation in potato cultivars do not have nutritional significance, but are used for visual variety and consumer appeal.Genetic research has produced several genetically modified varieties.Waxy potato varieties produce two main kinds of potato starch, amylose and amylopectin, the latter of which is most industrially useful. Amflora potatoes therefore produce starch consisting almost entirely of amylopectin, and are thus more useful for the starch industry.Genetically modified varieties have met public resistance in the United States and in the European Union.As sucrose synthase activity begins, Ferreira et al 2010 finds starch biosynthesis genes to begin transcription at the same time. It has since spread around the world and become a staple crop in many countries.In 2018, world production of potatoes was 368 million tonnes, led by China with 27% of the total (table).It remains an essential crop in Europe (especially northern and eastern Europe), where per capita production is still the highest in the world, but the most rapid expansion over the past few decades has occurred in southern and eastern Asia.According to the United States Department of Agriculture, a typical raw potato is 79% water, 17% carbohydrates (88% is starch), 2% protein, and contains negligible fat (see table).The potato is rarely eaten raw because raw potato starch is poorly digested by humans.This table shows the nutrient content of potatoes next to other major staple foods, each one measured in its respective raw state on a dry weight basis to account for their different water contents, even though staple foods are not commonly eaten raw and are usually sprouted or cooked before eating.In sprouted and cooked form, the relative nutritional and anti-nutritional contents of each of these grains (or other foods) may be different from the values in this table.B raw unenriched long-grain white rice.C raw hard red winter wheat.D raw potato with flesh and skin.F raw green soybeans.Potatoes contain toxic compounds known as glycoalkaloids, of which the most prevalent are solanine and chaconine.(The glycoalkaloid content was, in order from highest to lowest: flowers, sprouts, leaves, tuber skin, roots, berries, peel [skin plus outer cortex of tuber flesh], stems, and tuber flesh). Cooking at high temperatures—over 170 °C (338 °F)—partly destroys these compounds.Different potato varieties contain different levels of glycoalkaloids. While a normal potato tuber has 12–20 mg/kg of glycoalkaloid content, a green potato tuber contains 250–280 mg/kg and its skin has 1500–2200 mg/kg.Potato planting.Potatoes are generally grown from seed potatoes, tubers specifically grown to be free from disease and to provide consistent and healthy plants.Tuber bulking occurs during the fourth phase, when the plant begins investing the majority of its resources in its newly formed tubers.At this phase, several factors are critical to a good yield: optimal soil moisture and temperature, soil nutrient availability and balance, and resistance to pest attacks.The fifth phase is the maturation of the tubers: the leaves and stems senesce and the tuber skins harden.In general, the potatoes themselves are grown from the eyes of another potato and not from seed.Seed potato crops are rogued in some countries to eliminate diseased plants or those of a different variety from the seed crop.Pests and disease.Commercial harvesting is typically done with large potato harvesters, which scoop up the plant and surrounding earth.Skin-set is the process by which the skin of the potato becomes resistant to skinning damage.Potato tubers may be susceptible to skinning at harvest and suffer skinning damage during harvest and handling operations.Wound-healing prevents infection and water-loss from the tubers during storage.Potato transportation to cold storage in India.Temperatures below 4 °C (39 °F) convert the starch in potatoes into sugar, which alters their taste and cooking qualities and leads to higher acrylamide levels in the cooked product, especially in deep-fried dishes.The United States was the most productive country, with a nationwide average yield of 44.3 tonnes per hectare (19.8 short tons per acre).There is a big gap among various countries between high and low yields, even with the same variety of potato.China and India accounted for over a third of world's production in 2010, and had yields of 14.7 and 19.9 tonnes per hectare respectively.Potato crop yields are determined by factors such as the crop breed, seed age and quality, crop management practices and the plant environment.Most potato dishes are served hot but some are first cooked, then served cold, notably potato salad and potato chips (crisps).Common dishes are: mashed potatoes, which are first boiled (usually peeled), and then mashed with milk or yogurt and butter; whole baked potatoes; boiled or steamed potatoes; French-fried potatoes or chips; cut into cubes and roasted; scalloped, diced, or sliced and fried (home fries); grated into small thin strips and fried (hash browns); grated and formed into dumplings, Rösti or potato pancakes.Livestock-grade potatoes, considered too small and/or blemished to sell or market for human use but suitable for fodder use, have been called chats in some dialects.Potatoes are commonly used in plant research.Peruvian cuisine naturally contains the potato as a primary ingredient in many dishes, as around 3,000 varieties of this tuber are grown there.Chuño is a freeze-dried potato product traditionally made by Quechua and Aymara communities of Peru and Bolivia, and is known in various countries of South America, including Peru, Bolivia, Argentina, and Chile.In the UK, potatoes form part of the traditional staple, fish and chips.Puddings made from grated potatoes (kugel, kugelis, and potato babka) are popular items of Ashkenazi, Lithuanian, and Belarusian cuisine. German fried potatoes and various versions of Potato salad are part of German cuisine.They are a type of dumpling made from grated raw potatoes boiled in water and usually stuffed with minced meat, although sometimes dry cottage cheese (curd) or mushrooms are used instead. Similarly, cooked and mashed potatoes or potato flour can be used in the Knödel or dumpling eaten with or added to meat dishes all over central and Eastern Europe, but especially in Bavaria and Luxembourg.In the US, potatoes have become one of the most widely consumed crops and thus have a variety of preparation methods and condiments.One popular favourite involves a baked potato with cheddar cheese (or sour cream and chives) on top, and in New England "smashed potatoes" (a chunkier variation on mashed potatoes, retaining the peel) have a great popularity.Potato flakes are popular as an instant variety of mashed potatoes, which reconstitute into mashed potatoes by adding water, with butter or oil and salt to taste.Tracing its origins to Quebec in the 1950s, it has become a widespread and popular dish throughout Canada. High-density potatoes are desirable in the production of dehydrated mashed potatoes, potato crisps and french fries.In South Asia, the potato is a very popular traditional staple.Potatoes are also a major ingredient as fast food items, such as aloo chaat, where they are deep fried and served with chutney.Although potatoes are not native to India, it has become a vital part of food all over the country especially North Indian food preparations.The Aloo gosht, Potato and meat curry, is one of the popular dishes in South Asia, especially in Pakistan.During the late 19th century, numerous images of potato harvesting appeared in European art, including the works of Willem Witsen and Anton Mauve. .
Sweet potatoes: Health benefits and nutritional information
In one 2008 study , researchers found that an extract of white skinned sweet potato improved insulin sensitivity in people with type 2 diabetes.Earlier, in 2000, laboratory rats consumed either white skinned sweet potato or an insulin sensitizer, called troglitazone, for 8 weeks.Studies have found that people who consume more fiber appear to have a lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes.A 124 g serving of mashed sweet potato provides 259 milligrams (mg) of potassium, or around 5% of the daily requirements for an adult.Antioxidants such as beta-carotene can help prevent cellular damage caused by unstable molecules called free radicals.If levels of free radicals in the body get too high, cellular damage can occur, increasing the risk of some conditions.The fiber content in sweet potatoes can help prevent constipation and promote regularity for a healthy digestive tract.Also, multiple studies have linked high dietary fiber intake with a reduced risk of colorectal cancers.According to the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS), a baked sweet potato in its skin will provide around 1,403 mcg of vitamin A, or 561% of a person’s daily requirement.Many of the symptoms of scurvy result from tissue problems due to impaired collagen production.A rodent study from 2017 suggests that an extract of purple sweet potato color may help reduce the risk of inflammation and obesity.Sweet potatoes contain choline , a nutrient that helps with muscle movement, learning, and memory.A 2010 study found that taking high dose choline supplements helped manage inflammation in people with asthma. .