sativus) is an edible root vegetable of the family Brassicaceae that was domesticated in Asia prior to Roman times.Radishes are grown and consumed throughout the world, being mostly eaten raw as a crunchy salad vegetable with a pungent flavor.Another use of radish is as a cover or catch crop in winter, or as a forage crop. Some radishes are grown for their seeds; others, such as daikon, may be grown for oil production.Both of these are normally eaten raw in salads. The flesh of radishes harvested timely is crisp and sweet, but becomes bitter and tough if the vegetable is left in the ground too long. The fruits are small pods which can be eaten when young.Cultivar Image Name Green radish Raphanus sativus var.longipinnatus) Black radish Raphanus sativus var.niger Oilseed radish Raphanus sativus var.oleiformis Wild radish Raphanus sativus var.Radishes are a fast-growing, annual, cool-season crop.The seed germinates in three to four days in moist conditions with soil temperatures between 18 and 29 °C (65 and 85 °F).Growing radish plants.Companion plant [ edit ].Pests [ edit ].Varieties [ edit ].Broadly speaking, radishes can be categorized into four main types according to the seasons when they are grown and a variety of shapes, lengths, colors, and sizes, such as red, pink, white, gray-black, or yellow radishes, with round or elongated roots that can grow longer than a parsnip.Raphanus sativus) European radishes (.'Champion' is round and red-skinned like the 'Cherry Belle', but with slightly larger roots, up to 5 cm (2 in), and a milder flavor.'Sicily Giant' is a large heirloom variety from Sicily.'White Icicle' or 'Icicle' is a white carrot-shaped variety, around 10–12 cm (4–5 in) long, dating back to the 16th century.'Easter Egg' is not an actual variety, but a mix of varieties with different skin colors, typically including white, pink, red, and purple radishes.Winter varieties [ edit ].Daikon.Daikon refers to a wide variety of winter oilseed radishes from Asia.While the Japanese name daikon has been adopted in English, it is also sometimes called the Japanese radish, Chinese radish, Oriental radish or mooli (in India and South Asia). Daikon commonly have elongated white roots, although many varieties of daikon exist.One well-known variety is 'April Cross', with smooth white roots.The greens of Korean radishes are called mucheong(무청) and used as vegetable in various dishes.Seed pod varieties [ edit ].Radish seeds.The seeds of radishes grow in siliques (widely referred to as "pods"), following flowering that happens when left to grow past their normal harvesting period.The seeds are edible, and are sometimes used as a crunchy, sharp addition to salads. Some varieties are grown specifically for their seeds or seed pods, rather than their roots.The rat-tailed radish, an old European variety thought to have come from East Asia centuries ago, has long, thin, curly pods which can exceed 20 cm (8 in) in length.The seed can also be sprouted and eaten raw in a similar way to a mung bean.Radishes are mostly used in salads, but also appear in many European dishes. The daikon grows well in cool climates and, apart from its industrial use, can be used as a cover crop, grown to increase soil fertility, to scavenge nutrients, suppress weeds, help alleviate soil compaction, and prevent winter erosion of the soil.References [ edit ]. .
In China some large radishes are grown for the oil in the seeds.Radishes grow quickly, some maturing in 3 weeks from seed, in cool weather.Plant seeds for small radishes ½ inch deep in rows 6-8 inches apart.Plant seeds for large radishes 2 inches apart in rows 18 inches apart.Large radishes should be harvested before the first hard frost. .
When did radishes come to America?
Radishes are a crop grown in the Yuma area as part of the winter vegetable production programs.As many area gardeners know, radishes are known to tolerate many soil and environmental conditions and can reach maturity in as little as 20 days from seed.Radishes are annual or biennial brassicaceous crops grown for their swollen tap roots which can be globular, tapering, or cylindrical. .
Contributors to this page: CAAS, China (Qiu Yang, Li Xixiang); Bioversity International, Italy (Imke Thormann, Ehsan Dulloo); CGN, Netherlands (Noortje Bas); IPK, Germany (Andreas Börner, Ulrike Lohwasser); AVRDC, Taiwan (Andreas Ebert); USDA, USA (Larry Robertson); NBPGR, India (Chitra Pandey); SASA, UK (George Campbell); University of Warwick, UK (Charlotte Allender).Information on current practices for genebank management of radish genetic resources was first gathered from literature and then validated and updated in collaboration with the following genebanks: CGN - Wageningen, IPK - Gatersleben; AVRDC-Taiwan, USDA Plant Genetic Resources Unit - USA, NGB - NBPGR - India, SASA - UK, WARGRU Warwick - UK.Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is an anciently annual or biennial cultivated vegetable.Based on recent studies using chloroplast single sequence repeats (cpSSRs), Yamane et al. (2009) postulate three independent domestication events which include black Spanish radish and two distinct cpSSR haplotype groups.The early domestication of radishes, evolutionary processes and human selection of preferred types have led to significant variations in size, color and taste of this vegetable crop.Among them, small-rooted radishes are grown in temperate regions of the world and harvested throughout the year (Crisp 1995).Larger-rooted cultivars such as Chinese radish are predominant in East and Southeast Asia (Schippers 2004).In China, Japan and Korea, as well as in Yemen, radish ranks high in importance (Schippers 2004).The cultivated radishes have several wild relatives such as R. raphanistrum and its supbspecies landra (Moretti ex DC.).Pistrick (1987) divided cultivated radishes (Raphanus sativus L.) into three groups:.), also called R.
sativus Leaf Radish Group (Wiersema and León 1999), oilseed and fodder radishes, which are grown in Southeast Asia and in Europe for leaf fodder, and as green manure.caudatus (L.) L. H. Bailey), also known as R.
sativus Rat-Tailed Radish Group (Wiersema and León 1999) - the rat-tail radish (also known as mougri, radis serpent) grown for its edible immature green or purple seed pods and leaves.The large-rooted type of radish is usually cooked, canned or pickled besides being eaten raw.The seed pods are cooked for soups in southwest China and Southeast Asia.Wild radish seeds contain up to 48 percent oil, which is not suitable for human consumption but has promise as a source of biofuel (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radish).Farmers also grow oil radishes to improve and fertilize the soil and as fodder.In traditional medicine, radishes are used as one of nonpoisonous materials to treat coughs, cancer, whooping cough, gastric discomfort, liver disorders, constipation, dyspepsia, gallbladder disorders, arthritis, gallstones, and kidney stones (Adams 2008).Cheo TY, Guo RL, Lan YZ, Lou LL, Kuan KC, An ZX .Genetic Diversity of Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) Germplasm Resources Revealed by AFLP and RAPD Markers.International Symposium on Horticultural Germplasm, Cultivated and Wild; Beijing, China, Sept. 1988.Chinese Society for Horticultural Science, International Academic Publishers, Beijing, pp.PROTA (Plant Resources of Tropical Africa / Ressources végétales de l’Afrique tropicale), Wageningen, Netherlands.Thormann I, Qiu Yang, Allender C, Bas N, Campbell G, Dulloo E, Ebert AW, Lohwasser U, Pandey C, Robertson LD, Spellman O.Development of best practices for ex situ conservation of radish germplasm in the context of the Crop Genebank Knowledge Base.Multiple origins of cultivated radishes as evidenced by a comparison of the structural variations in mitochondrial DNA of Raphanus.Multiple origins and high genetic diversity of cultivated radish inferred from polymorphism in chloroplast simple sequence repeats. .
Orientals Eat Giant Radishes
Middle Asia appears to be a secondary center where many different forms developed after the plant was introduced from China in prehistoric times.Radishes were so highly valued by the ancient Greeks that small replicas of them were made in gold; beets were shown in silver and turnips in lead.Their writers described various kinds, including the small, mild, early, round, and long forms (like ours) as well as the large later types weighing several pounds each.Some have claimed that the radish was unknown in England before 1548, but that seems hardly probable in view of its early importance among Mediterranean peoples and its ease of culture almost everywhere.It is salty, sprightly in flavor-even though offensive to uninitiated Westerners-and adds savor and zest to his predominantly drab diet of rice.In India the rat-tailed radish (Raphanus caudatus) is grown for its fleshy, edible seed pods, which reach a length of eight to twelve inches.These very large kinds, grown in the Orient, are started in plant beds, then transplanted to the field or garden, about a foot apart in the row.These, along with the faintly rose-colored China Rose and the White Strasburg, belong to the group of so-called winter radishes, which can be stored in the same way as beets and turnips. .
Radish - an overview
It is a popular salad crop for home gardening and fresh market (Table 7).Raphanus is a latinized form of the Greek rephanos, which means ‘easily reared.’ Radish was a common food crop in Egypt.Several Asiatic or tropical varieties such as Japanese White, Pusa Desi, Pusa Chetki, and Pusa Reshmi are grown extensively in India.The Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI), New Delhi has released Pusa Himani as an improved variety of radish, having white skin, crisp flesh, and sweet flavor.The characteristic pungent flavor and taste of radish roots are due to the high content of volatile alkaloid isothiocyanate (trans-4-methyl thiobutenyl isothiocyanate: MTB-ITC).For salad purposes, selection is towards low pungency.The tops of winter radish are removed before they are stored, Mechanical harvesters are used for commercially grown crops in the USA. .
It is a biennial or annual plant whose root can be globular, tapering or cylindrical and which is crisp and sweet to some extent but it can be bitter if it is left on the ground for too long.Ancient Greeks and Romans also have text where they write about them, and they even give different types like small, large, round, long, mild, and sharp.They can be classified into four main types, according to the time of harvest into summer, fall, winter, and spring radishes and according to the lengths, colors, and sizes.Radishes that are grown as summer radishes are The April Cross, Bunny Tail, Cherry Belle, Red King, Champion, Sicily Giant, Snow Belle, White Icicle, French Breakfast, Plum Purple, Gala, Roodbol, and Easter Egg.Radish is a rich source of ascorbic and folic acid, potassium, vitamin B6, riboflavin, magnesium, copper, and calcium. .
Radish roots are low in calories and are usually eaten raw; the young leaves can be cooked like spinach.Radishes are usually grown as annuals and are harvested before they flower. .