or or or (sometimes transliterated as ) Chinese (Mandarin) = kōng xīn cài or toongsin tsai.I was very curious about it, but it took many trips before I got up the nerve to sample the bright green leaves.Unfortunately, because it grows so easily, it has been named an “invasive” in many parts of the United States.Botanists are unsure where Water Spinach originated, but it likely came from somewhere in eastern India to Southeast Asia.Currently it is found throughout tropical and subtropical regions around the world, but is a common ingredient in Southeast Asian cuisine.Water Spinach usually likes full sun, but can be a great herbaceous groundcover in very hot locations.Water Spinach is considered an invasive weed in the United States.The stems require only a little bit longer cooking time than the leaves.Edible Leaves – can be eated raw or cooked (stir-fried, sauteed, boiled, parboiled, etc.).The leaves are used much like “regular” spinach in Western cuisines, but there are many Asian recipes that look delicious….Recipes (I don’t normally list recipes, but since many Westerners are unfamiliar with this plant, I thought it would be a fun idea): Indonesian Stir-Fried Water Spinach (Cah Kangkung Terasi) Malaysian Stir-Fried Water Spinach (Sambal Kangkong) Filipino Pork Adobo with Water Spinach (Adobong Kangkong).(I don’t normally list recipes, but since many Westerners are unfamiliar with this plant, I thought it would be a fun idea):.But in any area where this plant is growing too fast, it would make a great ancillary feed source.Often harvested 30-60 days after sowing, depending on climate and culture – earlier if fully aquatic and later if semi-aquatic.Water Spinach can be harvested completely or in a cut-and-come-back-again manner – secondary shoots will form and grow.Harvest in the coolest part of the day to prevent moisture loss and wilting.For most of us living in a Temperate Climate, this means we will use Water Spinach as an annual or grow it in a greenhouse.Considering that the plants grow so fast and can be propagated from cuttings so easily, an individual’s life span is likely irrelevant.Stems can root at the nodes.Very fastPrefers full sunTolerates light shadeMoist to wet soils or fully aquatic conditions (still or flowing waters)5.5-7.0 (but it can tolerate a wide range of soil conditions).Briefly, the seedling or rooted cutting is placed in very wet soil.When eaten raw in Southeast Asia, there is a chance it can carry the parasite Fasciolopsis buski, the largest intestinal fluke in humans… it is best to cook it if in this area of the world! .

Spinach Planting & Spinach Growing

When growing spinach, the trick lies in making it last as long as possible, especially in the spring, when lengthening days shorten its life.One great way to do that is to start with vigorous young Bonnie Plants® spinach plants, which are already well on their way to maturity when you put them in your garden.Although it prefers full sun, spinach will still produce a respectable harvest in partial shade.Start off the growing season right by mixing in several inches of aged compost or other rich organic matter into your native soil.In the spring, plants will grow tall and bloom (called bolting) as soon as the days are longer than 14 hours.Our variety is slow to bolt, which is a real bonus for gardeners who don't have the luxury of long stretches of mild weather.Pests that enjoy spinach include flea beetles, spider mites, and aphids, which feed on the leaves.For instructions on how to fight back against these pests and diseases, contact your local Extension agency.When spinach begins to bolt in warm weather, it tastes bitter and is ready to be pulled. .

The Ultimate Spinach Growing Guide

Spinach is one of the most satisfying cool-weather crops to grow, producing large yields of vitamin-rich, dark green leaves that are excellent for salads and for cooking.Since both hot weather and long days trigger spinach to bolt (send up a seed stalk) quickly, the secret to success with this crop is to start sowing seeds as soon as possible in spring; to make small, frequent plantings during late spring and summer; and to concentrate on fall as the season for the main crop.Prepare the soil the previous autumn, and you'll be able to drop the seeds in barely thawed ground come spring.In warm climates, plant spinach in the shade of tall crops such as corn or beans.Using cold frames or heavyweight row covers, you can grow spinach all winter in many parts of the country.Downy mildew, which appears as yellow spots on leaf surfaces and mold on the undersides, occurs during very wet weather.Harvest the entire crop at the first sign of bolting by using a sharp knife to cut through the main stem just below the soil surface.This content is created and maintained by a third party, and imported onto this page to help users provide their email addresses. .

Ipomoea aquatica

This plant is known in English as water spinach, river spinach, water morning glory, water convolvulus, or by the more ambiguous names Chinese spinach, Chinese watercress, Chinese convolvulus or swamp cabbage, or kangkong/kangkung in Southeast Asia, ong choy (蕹菜) in Cantonese, and kōngxīncài (空心菜) in Mandarin or tung choi (通菜) sometimes in modern Cantonese.[13] There are also studies suggesting that the species is native to Africa,[14][15] and it is debated whether it is part of African indigenous flora or whether it was introduced there by Chinese mariner Zheng He.It is used extensively in Indonesian, Burmese, Thai, Lao, Cambodian, Malay, Vietnamese, Filipino, and Chinese cuisine, especially in rural or kampung (village) areas.During the Japanese occupation of Singapore in World War II, the vegetable grew remarkably easily in many areas, and became a popular wartime crop.In the United States it is cultivated in California, Florida, Hawaii, Texas, Arizona, and the U.S. Virgin Islands.[19] It is also considered native to Africa[13] and in its wild form, for example, is collected and used by the Sambaa people in Tanzania.In the dryland method, water spinach is grown on raised beds which are separated by irrigation ditches.Water spinach cultivated with the dryland method is ready for harvest 50 to 60 days after sowing.The seedlings to be used in this methods are usually grown in a nursery on a dry field, as the germination under water is quite poor.Also, the harvesting differs from the dryland system: In the wetland, the upper part of the main shoot is cut at about water level.This stimulates lateral growth and produces horizontal shoots carrying vertical branches.After the planting period, the fields are drained and once the fruit of the water spinach is ripe, it is harvested, dried, then trodden to release the seeds which are to be used for the following season.Generally, it has been shown that a dose of 60 kilograms (130 lb) N/ha is sufficient and that the application of K can be beneficial on the yield.The “woolly-bear” caterpillars (D.

virginica [Fabricius]) of the eastern United States and Diacrisia strigatula (Chinese tiger moth) are other species with wide food preferences.[29] A specialist pathogen on I. aquatica is the oomycete Albugo ipomoeae-aquaticae, though its range is restricted to southern and southeast Asia.Ipomoea aquatica is listed by the USDA as a noxious weed,[30] especially in the states of Florida, California, and Hawaii, where it can be observed growing in the wild.[33] I. aquatica has been extensively cultivated in Texas for over 30 years, having been originally brought there by Asian immigrants.Because no evidence indicates the plant has escaped into the wild, Texas lifted its ban on cultivation for personal use with no restrictions or requirements, noting its importance as a vegetable in many cultures, and also began permitting cultivation for commercial sales with the requirement of an exotic species permit.[35] In Sri Lanka it invades wetlands, where its long, floating stems form dense mats which can block the flow of water and prevent the passage of boats.The vegetable is a common ingredient in East, South and Southeast Asian dishes, such as in stir-fried water spinach.[37] In Singapore, Indonesia, and Malaysia, the tender shoots along with the leaves are usually stir-fried with chili pepper, garlic, ginger, dried shrimp paste (belacan/terasi) and other spices.Boiled eng chhai also can be served with fermented krill noodle belacan bihun and prawn mi.In Indonesian cuisine it is called kangkung, boiled or blanched together with other vegetables it forms the ingredient of gado-gado or pecel salads in peanut sauce.In Thailand, where it is called phak bung (Thai: ผักบุ้ง), it is eaten raw, often along with green papaya salad or nam phrik, in stir-fries and in curries such as kaeng som.In the Philippines, where it is called kangkóng, the tender shoots are cut into segments and cooked, together with the leaves, in fish and meat stews, such as sinigang.In adobong kangkóng (also called apan-apan), it is sautéed in cooking oil, onions, garlic, vinegar, and soy sauce.[41][42] In binagoongang kangkóng (or ginisang kangkóng), it is sautéed with garlic and topped with bagoong alamang (shrimp paste) or bagoong isda (fermented fish) and sliced fresh tomatoes and onions, commonly also with cubed crispy liempo (pork belly) or pork adobo.[43][44][45][46] A local appetiser called crispy kangkóng has the leaves coated in a flour-based batter and fried until crisp, similar to Japanese vegetable tempura.Using aquatic macrophytes to remove nutrients from wastewater and to control freshwater eutrophication has been reported to be a feasible way of phytoremediation.Water spinach is fed to livestock as green fodder with high nutritive value—especially the leaves, for they are a good source of carotene.In southeast Asian medicine it is used against piles, and nosebleeds, as an anthelmintic, and to treat high blood pressure.An aqueous juice of 100g plant material was given 30 minutes before eating glucose to diabetes 2 patients.[54] Contamination with thermotolerant coliforms (ThC) or protozoan bacteria with fecal origin, are very likely when the water spinach is planted in wastewater fed urban systems.This characteristic can be dangerous if water spinach is planted for human or animal feed in polluted aquatic systems.Mercury in water spinach is composed mostly as methylmercury and has the highest potential of becoming a threat to human health.The stems and bottom of the edible portion of the plant are higher in concentration and should be removed to minimize the heavy metal intake. .

How to Grow Spinach The Right Way

It produces huge yields of nutritious, delicious green leaves that are a worldwide staple in salads and most dishes you can whip up in the kitchen.​ But do you know how to grow spinach?Not only is it a phenomenal food, but it’s reasonably easy to grow, provided that you follow a few basic steps.So let’s talk about how to grow spinach, and the best ways to produce a big supply of this nutritional powerhouse!Common Name Spinach Scientific Name Spinacea oleracia Germination Time 8-15 days Days to Harvest 40ish, varies by variety Light Full sun to part shade Water About 1” per week Temperature Cool-season, 60-75 degrees preferred Humidity Can tolerate some humidity Soil Well-draining, alkaline soil Fertilizer High nitrogen fertilizer and compost Pests Flea beetles, spider mites, aphids, cutworms, armyworms, leafminers, slugs, snails Diseases Downy mildew, powdery mildew, white rust, anthracnose, cercospora leaf spot, spinach blight, fusarium wilt.Believed to have originated in ancient Persia, it rapidly spread from there to India, then China, and then throughout most of the world.Savoy types tend to have a crinkled or curled leaf shape, and work beautifully for fresh eating.Buy Seeds Escalade 43 days Mild flavor, upright habit, mildew resistance, and a reluctance to bolt.Buy Seeds America 43 days Thick green leaves perfect for freezing, canning, or fresh use.Buy Seeds Akarenso 50 days Slightly serrated Japanese spinach variety with red-purple stems.Buy Seeds Renegade 42 days Succulent, round dark green leaves.Buy Seeds Carmel 25 days Quick-growing, very uniform spinach with high downy mildew resistance.Buy Seeds Okame 50 days Slow to bolt and can take hotter temperatures.While not an actual spinach, it has a spinach-like flavor to its leaves and can tolerate hot weather extremely well.More commonly known as red lamb’s quarter or goosefoot, this particular plant produces edible leaves.Early spring and in the fall are the two times of year when spinach is most likely to come to full maturity before bolting.Hot weather will rapidly cause most spinach plants to turn to seed production, which reduces the quality of the leaves for eating purposes.Planting your seeds as soon as the ground can be worked in the spring is the best way to get a full crop before the weather starts to get hot.You can actually plant before the final frost in most areas, but the seeds won’t germinate unless the soil temperature’s above 40, and it may be a slower growth process.If you want to have a consistent harvest and are in an area where a long, cool spring is likely, you can sow more seed every ten days or so to maintain regular new growth.Depending on your typical weather conditions, you can sow fall crows from August through September and harvest well into the latter portion of the year.Those who are in temperate California or other warm environments can actually grow spinach from fall all the way through winter and well into the spring!However, it’s important to note that spinach seeds do not germinate well at soil temperatures above 85 degrees Fahrenheit.Also, pick a location where you can guarantee reasonably cool temperatures for the growing period, as this will help prevent bolting.It can grow in shadier conditions, but it should receive no less than six hours of full sun per day for plant development.Similarly, overly warm conditions will tell your spinach that it’s time to produce seed and prepare to die of heat exhaustion.They can quickly bolt, resulting in bittered leaves and failing plants.You can sometimes provide shade cloth through the heat of the day to reduce the ambient temperature around your plant, but it won’t work for long.Once there are four young leaves there, you can add an extra dose of a high-nitrogen liquid fertilizer around the base of your plant.Like many other leafy vegetables, it’s advisable to regularly harvest leaves from the plant to encourage faster and bushier growth.Unlike many other green plants, spinach does not grow from cuttings, as the leaves and stems will not form new roots.Due to the long taproot that the spinach plant produces, it can quickly outgrow any starter containers.The taproot will continue trying to grow downward, and it can spiral around inside its container.Many people prefer to wait until their plant has developed some good leaf growth, but spinach can also be grown as a sprout or as microgreens.You can opt to either cut the stems off slightly below the leaf, or to snip off the entire top of the plant.If you remove all of the leaves, the plant will not grow to maturity, so if you plan to harvest baby spinach, regularly re-sow to maintain steady production.Older spinach plants can be harvested by snipping off the leaves at the stem with a pair of garden scissors.To clean it, fill a large bowl with cool water and place your spinach inside.Dunk it repeatedly under the surface of the water, then gently drain the spinach and refill the bowl.Place the cut ends into a paper towel to help absorb any excess moisture, and store your spinach in a plastic bag in the refrigerator.Removing any excess air from the bag will help reduce the potential of moisture buildup inside, too.Don’t blanch with boiling water as this will draw out too many of the nutrients and flavor of the leaves.Loosely fill your sterilized jars with the wilted greens and add boiling water, leaving about an inch of headspace.As long as you’ve followed the steps mentioned above, you should be able to grow a good crop of spinach.Seeds that are buried too shallowly or too deep can fail to germinate – aim for 1/4″ to 1/2″ planting depth.Finally, keep your soil evenly moist, as too little or too much water can also stop germination.If you plant too close to summertime, it’s common for your spinach to go from seedling to seed stalk without producing many leaves at all.Aphids are also a vector for diseases, and can spread things like spinach blight to your plants.These moth larvae will munch right through the base of young plants, causing them to topple over and die.Common in most gardens, these little guys find spinach to be delicious just like we do, and will chew through leaves and plant stems.When they eat the poisoned bait, they die off and leave my plants safe from harm.This mildew develops in wet or humid weather and can be hard to control.Yellow or white patches may form on the top of leaves, while a greyish fungus appears on the underside.It’s best to avoid downy mildew by ensuring good airflow around your plants and by watering the soil rather than the leaves.A: Most spinach is somewhat cold-hardy and can survive cooler temperatures, but it won’t tolerate hard freezes.Generally, anything below 40 degrees is best protected from the chill in the air, and with a cold frame you can extend your growing season quite a bit.Adding some form of heating element in the cold frame (like a string of lights) may help you grow spinach all the way through the winter months! .

How to Grow Spinach in Pots

Other Names— Spinacia oleracea (Scientific Name), Persian vegetable, palak, bōsī cài, 波斯菜, leafy greens.If you are growing spinach in fall (autumn), keep the plant in a sunny spot (in mild climates) due to shorter days and less intensity of the sun.In subtropical or tropical climate, place the containers in a spot that receives plenty of shade.For growing spinach in containers, use quality potting mix rich in organic matter.When growing spinach in containers, avoid water stagnation because it will lead to the development of rot and various fungal diseases.Growing spinach indoors on a windowsill is a great idea (as it doesn’t require a lot of sunlight) if you’re short of outdoor space.At the time of planting, you can mix time-based fertilizer, or you can add a lot of compost or well-rotted manure, this will provide nutrients slowly.You don’t need to worry much about pests as you’re growing spinach in containers, in a small space and you can easily control them.However, keeping an eye on leaf-eating insects like slugs and caterpillars and other common garden pests like aphids will help you in eliminating them in time.It is a cool season crop, but growing spinach in tropics and subtropics is extremely easy.You’ll need to provide it shade and enough water to keep the soil temperature cool and moist.In warm weather, vegetables like lettuce and spinach begin to bolt early and start to set seeds.The spinach plant will be ready for harvest 37-50 days after germination depending on the growing conditions and cultivar.When the weather becomes humid and hot (in warm climates) the plant tends to form an erect stem, on which you can see some small yellow or green flowers developing. .


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