The discrepancy in berry nomenclature arose because people called certain fruits "berries" thousands of years before scientists came up with a precise definition for the word, said Judy Jernstedt, a professor of plant sciences at the University of California, Davis.Usually, people think of berries as small, squishy fruit that can be picked off plants, but the scientific classification is far more complex, Jernstedt said.For instance, a grape's outer skin is the exocarp, its fleshy middle is the mesocarp and the jelly-like insides holding the seeds constitute the endocarp, Jernstedt told Live Science.The same layered structure appears in other berries, including the banana and watermelon, although their exocarps are a bit tougher, taking the form of a peel and a rind, respectively.(The suffix "carp" comes from the word "carpel," which refers to the pistil, the female organ of the flower, Jernstedt said.).Rather, cherries, like other fleshy fruit with thin skin and a central stone that contains a seed, are called drupes, she said.Like other berries, bananas are composed of three fleshy layers: the outer skin, the mushy middle and the innermost part with the seeds.In other words, it can be difficult to classify nature's many fruits, which evolve without a thought about how scientists will view them. .

Tomato

[6] The tomato is consumed in diverse ways, raw or cooked, in many dishes, sauces, salads, and drinks.(Determinate, or bush, plants are annuals that stop growing at a certain height and produce a crop all at once.).[citation needed] In this capacity, it has even become an American and British slang term: saying " " when presented with two choices can mean "What's the difference?".Indeterminate types are "tender" perennials, dying annually in temperate climates (they are originally native to tropical highlands), although they can live up to three years in a greenhouse in some cases.Tomato vines are typically pubescent, meaning covered with fine short hairs.Their flowers, appearing on the apical meristem, have the anthers fused along the edges, forming a column surrounding the pistil's style.Although in culinary terms, tomato is regarded as a vegetable, its fruit is classified botanically as a berry.[12] As a true fruit, it develops from the ovary of the plant after fertilization, its flesh comprising the pericarp walls.The fruit contains hollow spaces full of seeds and moisture, called locular cavities.On the other hand, hybrids of tomato and diploid potato can be created in the lab by somatic fusion, and are partially fertile,[19] providing evidence of the close relationship between these species.[23] The latest reference genome published in 2021 had 799 MB and encodes 34,384 (predicted) proteins, spread over 12 chromosomes.The first commercially available genetically modified food was a tomato called Flavr Savr, which was engineered to have a longer shelf life.Scientists are continuing to develop tomatoes with new traits not found in natural crops, such as increased resistance to pests or environmental stresses or better flavor.These efforts have resulted in significant regionally adapted breeding lines and hybrids, such as the Mountain series from North Carolina.Encyclopedia Britannica, tomatoes are a fruit labeled in grocery stores as a vegetable due to (the taste) and nutritional purposes.According to, tomatoes are a fruit labeled in grocery stores as a vegetable due to (the taste) and nutritional purposes.Tomatoes are not the only food source with this ambiguity; bell peppers, cucumbers, green beans, eggplants, avocados, and squashes of all kinds (such as courgettes/zucchini and pumpkins) are all botanically fruit, yet cooked as vegetables.In 1887, U.S. tariff laws that imposed a duty on vegetables, but not on fruit, caused the tomato's status to become a matter of legal importance.[27] The holding of this case applies only to the interpretation of the Tariff of 1883, and the court did not purport to reclassify the tomato for botanical or other purposes.[28] The first evidence of domestication points to the Aztecs and other peoples in Mesoamerica, who used the fruit fresh and in their cooking.In France, Italy and northern Europe, the tomato was initially grown as an ornamental plant.It was regarded with suspicion as a food because botanists recognized it as a nightshade, a relative of the poisonous belladonna, famous for being used by the state of Athens to execute Socrates.The exact date of domestication is unknown; by 500 BC, it was already being cultivated in southern Mexico and probably other areas.[31]: 13 The Pueblo people are thought to have believed that those who witnessed the ingestion of tomato seeds were blessed with powers of divination.[33] Bernardino de Sahagún reported seeing a great variety of tomatoes in the Aztec market at Tenochtitlán (Mexico City): ".The earliest discussion of the tomato in European literature appeared in a herbal written in 1544 by Pietro Andrea Mattioli, an Italian physician and botanist, who suggested that a new type of eggplant had been brought to Italy that was blood red or golden color when mature and could be divided into segments and eaten like an eggplant—that is, cooked and seasoned with salt, black pepper, and oil.It was not until ten years later that tomatoes were named in print by Mattioli as pomi d'oro, or "golden apples".The recorded history of tomatoes in Italy dates back to at least 31 October 1548, when the house steward of Cosimo de' Medici, the grand duke of Tuscany, wrote to the Medici private secretary informing him that the basket of tomatoes sent from the grand duke's Florentine estate at Torre del Gallo "had arrived safely".[citation needed] Tomatoes were grown mainly as ornamentals early on after their arrival in Italy.For example, the Florentine aristocrat Giovanvettorio Soderini wrote how they "were to be sought only for their beauty", and were grown only in gardens or flower beds.The tomato's ability to mutate and create new and different varieties helped contribute to its success and spread throughout Italy.[37] In certain areas of Italy, such as Florence, the fruit was used solely as a tabletop decoration, until it was incorporated into the local cuisine in the late 17th or early 18th century.[31]: 17 Gerard's Herbal, published in 1597, and largely plagiarized from continental sources,[31]: 17 is also one of the earliest discussions of the tomato in England.[31]: 17 Nonetheless, he believed it was poisonous[31]: 17 (in fact, the plant and raw fruit do have low levels of tomatine, but are not generally dangerous; see below).Gerard's views were influential, and the tomato was considered unfit for eating (though not necessarily poisonous) for many years in Britain and its North American colonies.Even today, in Bengal, the alternative name is "Biliti Begun" (Bengali: বিলিতি বেগুন), meaning "Foreign Eggplant" It was then adopted widely as it is well suited to India's climate, with Uttarakhand as one of the main producers[citation needed].The tomato was introduced to cultivation in the Middle East by John Barker, British consul in Aleppo circa 1799 to 1825.The earliest reference to tomatoes being grown in British North America is from 1710, when herbalist William Salmon reported seeing them in what is today South Carolina.Possibly, some people continued to think tomatoes were poisonous at this time; and in general, they were grown more as ornamental plants than as food.[31]: 28 Some early American advocates of the culinary use of the tomato included Michele Felice Cornè and Robert Gibbon Johnson.Early tomato breeders included Henry Tilden in Iowa and a Dr.

Hand in Baltimore.Alexander W. Livingston receives much credit for developing numerous varieties of tomato for both home and commercial gardeners.[45] The U.S.

Department of Agriculture's 1937 yearbook declared that "half of the major varieties were a result of the abilities of the Livingstons to evaluate and perpetuate superior material in the tomato.".Because of the long growing season needed for this heat-loving crop, several states in the US Sun Belt became major tomato-producers, particularly Florida and California.In California, tomatoes are grown under irrigation for both the fresh fruit market and for canning and processing.This was widely cross-bred to produce red fruit without the typical green ring around the stem on uncross-bred varieties.Prior to general introduction of this trait, most tomatoes produced more sugar during ripening, and were sweeter and more flavorful.Hence genetic design of a commercial variety that combines the advantages of types u and U requires fine tuning, but may be feasible.[55][56] However, these breeding efforts have yielded unintended negative consequences on various tomato fruit attributes.For instance, linkage drag is a phenomenon that has been responsible for alterations in the metabolism of the tomato fruit.Thus, breeding efforts attempting to enhance certain traits (for example: larger fruit size) have unintentionally altered production of chemicals associated with, for instance, nutritional value and flavor.However, this tactic has limitations, for the incorporation of certain traits, such as pathogen resistance, can negatively impact other favorable phenotypes (fruit production, etc.).Handling cigarettes and other infected tobacco products can transmit the virus to tomato plants.Another particularly dreaded disease is curly top, carried by the beet leafhopper, which interrupts the lifecycle.As the name implies, it has the symptom of making the top leaves of the plant wrinkle up and grow abnormally.Systemin activates defensive mechanisms, such as the production of protease inhibitors to slow the growth of insects.In addition, a deformity called cat-facing can be caused by pests, temperature stress, or poor soil conditions.Several species of umbellifer are therefore often grown with tomato plants, including parsley, Queen Anne's lace, and occasionally dill.As a floral device to reduce selfing, the pistil of wild tomatoes extends farther out of the flower than today's cultivars.That tomatoes pollinate themselves poorly without outside aid is clearly shown in greenhouse situations, where pollination must be aided by artificial wind, vibration of the plants (one brand of vibrator is a wand called an "electric bee" that is used manually), or more often today, by cultured bumblebees.[75] The anther of a tomato flower is shaped like a hollow tube, with the pollen produced within the structure, rather than on the surface, as in most species.In an outdoors setting, wind or animals usually provide sufficient motion to produce commercially viable crops.Meiosis is central to the processes by which diploid microspore mother cells within the anther give rise to haploid pollen grains, and megaspore mother cells in ovules that are contained within the ovary give rise to haploid nuclei.Fertilization leads to the formation of a diploid zygote that can then develop into an embryo within the emerging seed.In more temperate climates, it is not uncommon to start seeds in greenhouses during the late winter for future transplant.In 1994, Calgene introduced a genetically modified tomato called the FlavrSavr, which could be vine ripened without compromising shelf life.As of 2008, the heaviest tomato harvested, weighed 3.51 kg (7 lb 12 oz), was of the cultivar "Delicious", and was grown by Gordon Graham of Edmond, Oklahoma in 1986.The plant has been recognized as a Guinness World Record Holder, with a harvest of more than 32,000 tomatoes and a total weight of 522 kg (1,151 lb).[85][full citation needed] It yielded thousands of tomatoes at one time from a single vine.Yong Huang, Epcot's manager of agricultural science, discovered the unique plant in Beijing, China.[citation needed] The tree developed a disease and was removed in April 2010 after about 13 months of life.In 2019, world production of tomatoes was 181 million tonnes, with China accounting for 35% of the total, followed by India and Turkey as major producers (see table).Though it is botanically a berry, a subset of fruit, the tomato is a vegetable for culinary purposes because of its savoury flavour (see above).Ripe tomatoes contain significant umami flavor and they are a key ingredient in pizza, and are commonly used in pasta sauces.It is used in diverse ways, including raw in salads or in slices, stewed, incorporated into a wide variety of dishes, or processed into ketchup or tomato soup.The leaves, stem, and green unripe fruit of the tomato plant contain small amounts of the alkaloid tomatine, whose effect on humans has not been studied.[30] They also contain small amounts of solanine, a toxic alkaloid found in potato leaves and other plants in the nightshade family.Compared to potatoes, the amount of solanine in unripe green or fully ripe tomatoes is low.100 g of raw tomatoes supply 18 kilocalories and are a moderate source of vitamin C (17% of the Daily Value), but otherwise have no significant nutrient content (table).There is no conclusive evidence to indicate that the lycopene in tomatoes or in supplements affects the onset of cardiovascular diseases or cancer.[100] In a scientific review of potential claims for lycopene favorably affecting DNA, skin exposed to ultraviolet radiation, heart function and vision, the European Food Safety Authority concluded that the evidence for lycopene having any of these effects was inconclusive.Female P. operculella use the leaves to lay their eggs and the hatched larvae will eat away at the mesophyll of the leaf.The town of Buñol, Spain, annually celebrates La Tomatina, a festival centered on an enormous tomato fight.Flavr Savr was the first commercially grown genetically engineered food licensed for human consumption.Embracing it for this protest connotation, the Dutch Socialist party adopted the tomato as their logo.

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The Strawberry: A Multiple Fruit

While vegetables are defined as plants cultivated for their edible parts, the botanical term "fruit" is more specific.A berry is an indehiscent (not splitting apart at maturity) fruit derived from a single ovary and having the whole wall fleshy.According to the Wellness Encyclopedia of Food and Nutrition, one-half cup of strawberries supplies more fiber than a slice of whole wheat bread, and more than 70 percent of the recommended daily allowance of vitamin C.The plants form their fruit buds in the fall, so adequate moisture at that time is vital.Since October 1996 was a rainy month, Beinlich is looking forward to a bountiful strawberry crop this season.Lynn Parrucci is program coordinator, and Amy Eubanks is a research assistant, at the Science Center's Kitchen Theater.Botanist Sue Thompson of Carnegie Museum of Natural History, also contributed to this article.The Kitchen Theater at Carnegie Science Center is sponsored by the Jewish Healthcare Foundation.Carolyn Beinlich of Triple B Farms will present a cooking demonstration on strawberries at the Science Center's Kitchen Theater Sunday, June 1, at 1:30 and 3:30 p.m. Stop by for a taste of pie and jam, and take home some recipes for strawberry delicacies.

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Is a Tomato a Fruit or a Vegetable?

In many cultures, vegetables tend to be served as part of the main dish or side, whereas sweet fruits are typically snacks or desserts.Thus, roots, tubers, stems, flower buds, leaves, and certain botanical fruits, including green beans, pumpkins, and of course tomatoes, are all considered vegetables by nutritionists. .

Bananas Are Berries?

It turns out that the plant world is full of strange cases of counterintuitive classification.Subcategories within the fruit family—citrus, berry, stonefruit or drupe (peaches, apricots), and pome (apples, pears)—are determined by which parts of the flower/ovary give rise to the skin, flesh and seeds.True berries are simple fruits stemming from one flower with one ovary and typically have several seeds. .

berry

The elongated tough-skinned fruits of the family Cucurbitaceae, including watermelons, cucumbers, and gourds, are a type of berry referred to as pepos.Raspberries, blackberries, and strawberries, for example, are not true berries but are aggregate fruits—fruits that consist of a number of smaller fruits. .

Why corn is a fruit, tomatoes are berries, rhubarb is a vegetable, and

We generally consider vegetables as a side dish or a part of a salad, while fruits are seen as sweet foods for snacks and deserts, but in reality, things are much different.This also means that things like corn, zucchini or spring beans are actually fruits – and not vegetables, as we generally call them.This makes everything even stranger; for example, you’d think that by these definitions, broccoli and cauliflower are fruits, but they’re not – because they haven’t yet opened their flower buds.The botanical definition of a berry is a fleshy fruit produced from a single flower and containing one ovary. .

Is a Tomato a Fruit or Vegetable?

They’re typically grouped alongside vegetables in the culinary world, but you may have also heard them referred to as fruits.Nutritionally, fruits and vegetables get a lot of attention for being rich sources of vitamins, minerals and fiber ( 1 ).In culinary practice, fruits and vegetables are utilized and applied based primarily on their flavor profiles.Summary Whether a food is a fruit or vegetable depends on if it’s being discussed in culinary or botanical terms.Like other true fruits, tomatoes form from small yellow flowers on the vine and naturally contain a multitude of seeds.Interestingly, some modern varieties of tomato plants have been intentionally cultivated to stop producing seeds.As a result, they’ve earned a reputation as a vegetable, even though they’re technically a fruit by scientific standards.It was during this case that the court ruled the tomato would be classified as a vegetable on the basis of its culinary applications instead of its botanical categorization as a fruit.In fact, it’s fairly common for plants botanically classified as fruits to be used as vegetables in culinary practice. .

Is a Tomato a Fruit? It Depends on How You Slice It

Adam and Eve, unable to resist one, were booted from the blissful Garden of Eden; a fruit kicked off the Trojan War; and a fruit so seduced kidnapped Persephone in the Underworld that she simply couldn’t help taking a bite, thus landing the rest of us forevermore with the chilly season of winter.Vegetables, traditionally, are the stuff kids push around on their plates and hide under their mashed potatoes.This means that tomatoes, squash, pumpkins, cucumbers, peppers, eggplants, corn kernels, and bean and pea pods are all fruits; so are apples, pears, peaches, apricots, melons and mangos.A vegetable, botanically, is any edible part of a plant that doesn’t happen to be a fruit, as in leaves (spinach, lettuce, cabbage), roots (carrots, beets, turnips), stems (asparagus), tubers (potatoes), bulbs (onions), and flowers (cauliflower and broccoli).In 1886, importer John Nix and colleagues landed a load of West Indian tomatoes at the Port of New York where the resident customs official—one Edward Hedden—demanded payment of a ten percent tax in accordance with the Tariff Act of 1883, which levied an import duty on “foreign vegetables.” Nix, who knew his botany, objected, on the grounds that the tomato –a fruit — should be tax-exempt.The case eventually made its way to the Supreme Court where, in 1893, Justice Horace Gray ruled in favor of vegetable.“Botanically speaking,” said Justice Gray, “tomatoes are the fruit of the vine, just as are cucumbers, squashes, beans and peas.But in the common language of the people…all these vegetables…are usually served at dinner in, with, or after the soup, fish, or meat, which constitute the principal part of the repast, and not, like fruits, generally as dessert.”.“The Supreme Court has just decided that beans are vegetables,” commented a gleeful Iowa newspaper.Subsequent court decisions found truffles, onions, and water chestnuts also to be vegetables, but ruled that rhubarb (a leaf petiole or stalk, like celery) was a fruit, presumably from its popularity in strawberry-rhubarb pie.In 2001, the European Union declared carrots, sweet potatoes, and the now thoroughly confused tomatoes all to be fruits, at least for the purpose of making jam.In the food category, we have official state fruits, vegetables, nuts, grains, herbs, beverages, muffins, cookies, and pies.The Oklahoma watermelon bill was sponsored by senator Don Barrington, Republican, from the watermelon-growing district of Rush Springs, and former winner of a hometown watermelon-seed-spitting contest.Barrington’s argument was that the watermelon was a vegetable by virtue of its genetic relationship to the obviously vegetable (that is, not eaten as dessert) cucumber and gourd; and he got some back-up from the USDA’s National Agricultural Statistics Service, which lists melons under “Vegetables.” The deciding factor, on the other hand, may have been the fact that Oklahoma already had a state fruit: the strawberry.In early America, cautionary tales of moral instruction sternly warned that stealing fruit was the sort of gateway sin that led children straight to a life of crime. .

What fruit is growing on my potato plants?

Gardeners have been surprised this year to find fruit produced on tops of potato plants.Some might have even noticed the small, tomato-like blossoms in July or August, but few people have seen the fruit that look like green cherry tomatoes at the top of the plants.Michigan State University Extension hotlines have received many calls this summer about strange fruit where it doesn’t belong.Potatoes and tomatoes can share diseases, like this year’s large problem with late blight.Occasionally, you will see ads in garden magazines for a grafted tomato-potato mix up that produces tomatoes on the top and potatoes in the soil.The cool weather with adequate rain allowed the flowers to remain, pollinate and grow into small potato fruit.Besides being very bitter, eating plant parts containing solanine can lead to headache, abdominal pain, shock and diarrhea. .

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