Maybe it was my Asian upbringing that taught me never to waste food, as my family used and ate every part of the vegetable, fish, chicken, pig, or cow that we brought home.This was how I came to love artichoke stems, leek greens, and cucumber leaves, parts that are normally discarded or composted, but are in fact quite tasty.With vines that sometimes grow to 10 feet long, it seemed like such a waste that the leaves weren’t used when the amount of fruit seemed so small in proportion.Popular culture has taught us that tomato leaves are part of the “deadly nightshade” family and thus, they must be poisonous.Within this family are the vegetables we know and love, like tomatoes, tomatillos, potatoes, eggplants, and sweet and hot peppers.Despite its nickname, belladonna, an herbaceous perennial, has historical use in herbal medicine as a pain reliever and muscle relaxer, and even as a beauty aid.It comes from the outdated practice of women putting drops of belladonna berry juice in their eyes to dilate their pupils.When the tomato was brought to Europe in the 16th century, people believed it to be poisonous like other members of the Solanaceae family, including belladonna, henbane, and mandrake.This ambivalence was later reflected in the tomato’s other accepted scientific name, Lycopersicon esculentum (translated to “edible wolf peach”).The difference in concentration between the fresh leaves and green fruits is negligible, so one isn’t necessarily “safer” to consume than the other.The glycoalkaloid has been found to effectively kill or suppress the growth of human breast, colon, liver, and stomach cancer cells.Judging from these studies, and the lack of evidence that tomato leaves are toxic for human consumption, I’ll have to give Myth #2 a miss.If they have unrestricted access to your garden and haven’t been trained to stay away from plants, it’s very possible they’ll chow down all your tomatoes, leaves and all.(The list of plants that are toxic to dogs is long and surprising: lemongrass, chamomile, tarragon, borage, milkweed, purslane, and various parts of apples, peaches, and grapefruits.).There are other foods we eat freely that are known to be poisonous to dogs, such as chocolate, grapes, raisins, garlic, and onions.One study in Israel examined the possibility of livestock poisoning by feeding tomato vines to cattle for 42 days, but found no ill effects.Since tomatine, a glycoalkaloid, has fungicidal properties and is part of the tomato’s natural defenses, it makes sense that the compound could potentially protect against pests when extracted into a solution.Unless you’re allergic to tomatoes, the tomatine in tomato-leaf sprays won’t harm you—and that’s why it’s used as an organic method of pest control.Myth #5: Tomato leaves aren’t sold commercially and no one has ever cooked with them, so that’s a sign they’re not meant to be eaten.In his book Cooking by Hand, former Chez Panisse chef Paul Bertolli included a recipe for leafy tomato sauce.Until I started traveling to other countries, exploring their local cuisines, and cooking from my garden, I never knew all the possibilities of the plants I was growing.Dehydrated and crushed tomato leaves can be used as seasoning, perhaps folded into pizza dough or sprinkled over noodles.As for the rest of my garden, an adventurous appetite has led me to discover how delicious broccoli leaves are (you won’t find many recipes for those either), as well as carrot tops, nasturtium pods, radish pods, radish greens, and pea shoots (which are actually an Asian grocery staple).The fact that tomato leaves aren’t part of the mainstream American diet doesn’t make them toxic by any means.But personally, I like to use them as an accent, where their strong herbal aroma adds a unique depth of flavor that you can’t get from tomato fruits themselves. .
Tomatoes: Benefits, facts, and research
This article will examine their powerful health benefits, nutritional content, ways to include more tomatoes in the diet, and the risks of tomato consumption.Its nutritional content supports healthful skin, weight loss, and heart health.The benefits of consuming different types of fruit and vegetable are impressive, and tomatoes are no different.As the proportion of plant foods in the diet increases, the risk of developing heart disease, diabetes, and cancer decreases.A recent study in the journal Molecular Cancer Research linked the intake of high levels of beta-carotene to the prevention of tumor development in prostate cancer.Lycopene is a polyphenol, or plant compound, that has been linked with one type of prostate cancer prevention .Fiber intake from fruits and vegetables is associated with a lowered risk of colorectal cancer.High potassium and low sodium intake are also associated with a 20 percent reduced risk of dying from all causes.The fiber, potassium, vitamin C, and choline content in tomatoes all support heart health.The management of homocysteine levels by folate reduces one of the risk factors for heart disease.Studies have shown that people with type 1 diabetes who consume high-fiber diets have lower blood glucose levels, while people with type 2 diabetes may have improved blood sugar, lipids, and insulin levels.Collagen is an essential component of the skin, hair, nails, and connective tissue.While it is recommended that women who are pregnant take a folic acid supplement, tomatoes are a great source of naturally-occurring folate. .
TOMATO: Overview, Uses, Side Effects, Precautions, Interactions
The effects of natural antioxidants from tomato extract in treated but uncontrolled hypertensive patients.Ried, K., Frank, O. R., and Stocks, N.
P. Dark chocolate or tomato extract for prehypertension: a randomised controlled trial.Rizwan, M., Rodriguez-Blanco, I., Harbottle, A., Birch-Machin, M. A., Watson, R. E., and Rhodes, L. E. Tomato paste rich in lycopene protects against cutaneous photodamage in humans in vivo: a randomized controlled trial.Borel P, Desmarchelier C, Dumont U, et al.
Dietary calcium impairs tomato lycopene bioavailability in healthy humans.Chen J, Song Y, Zhang L. Lycopene/tomato consumption and the risk of prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies.Cheng HM, Koutsidis G, Lodge JK, Ashor AW, Siervo M, Lara J.
Lycopene and tomato and risk of cardiovascular diseases: A systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological evidence.Clinton SK, Emenhiser C, Schwartz SJ, et al. Cis-trans lycopene isomers, carotenoids, and retinol in the human prostate.Cramer DW, Kuper H, Harlow BL, Titus-Ernstoff L. Carotenoids, antioxidants and ovarian cancer risk in pre- and postmenopausal women.Positive Effects of Tomato Paste on Vascular Function After a Fat Meal in Male Healthy Subjects.Engelhard YN, Gazer B, Paran E.
Natural antioxidants from tomato extract reduce blood pressure in patients with grade-1 hypertension: a double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study.Etminan M, Takkouche B, Caamano-Isorna F. The role of tomato products and lycopene in the prevention of prostate cancer: a meta-analysis of observational studies.Qualified Health Claims: Letter Regarding "Tomatoes and Prostate, Ovarian, Gastric and Pancreatic Cancers (American Longevity Petition)" (Docket No.Gann PH, Deaton RJ, Rueter EE, et al. A Phase II Randomized Trial of Lycopene-Rich Tomato Extract Among Men with High-Grade Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia.Gann PH, Ma J, Giovannucci E, et al.
Lower prostate cancer risk in men with elevated plasma lycopene levels: results of a prospective analysis.Giovannucci E, Ascherio A, Rimm EB, et al. Intake of carotenoids and retinol in relation to risk of prostate cancer.Giovannucci E, Rimm EB, Liu Y, et al.
A prospective study of tomato products, lycopene, and prostate cancer risk.Giovannucci E. Tomatoes, tomato-based products, lycopene, and cancer: review of the epidemiologic literature.The U.S. Food and Drug Administration's evidence-based review for qualified health claims: tomatoes, lycopene, and cancer.Kirsh VA, Mayne ST, Peters U, et al. A prospective study of lycopene and tomato product intake and risk of prostate cancer.La Vecchia C. Mediterranean epidemiological evidence on tomatoes and the prevention of digestive-tract cancers.Montonen J, Knekt P, Jarvinen R, Reunanen A. Dietary antioxidant intake and risk of type 2 diabetes.Effect of 12-Week Daily Intake of the High-Lycopene Tomato (Solanum Lycopersicum), A Variety Named "PR-7", on Lipid Metabolism: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel-Group Study.Nkondjock A, Ghadirian P, Johnson KC, Krewski D.
Dietary intake of lycopene is associated with reduced pancreatic cancer risk.Norrish AE, Jackson RT, Sharpe SJ, Skeaff CM.Olmedilla B, Granado F, Southon S, et al. A European multicentre, placebo-controlled supplementation study with alpha-tocopherol, carotene-rich palm oil, lutein or lycopene: analysis of serum responses.Rowles JL 3rd, Ranard KM, Applegate CC, Jeon S, An R, Erdman JW Jr.Processed and raw tomato consumption and risk of prostate cancer: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis.Stram DO, Hankin JH, Wilkens LR, et al.
Prostate cancer incidence and intake of fruits, vegetables and related micronutrients: the multiethnic cohort study.Tavani A, Negri E, La Vecchia C. Food and nutrient intake and risk of cataract.Consumption of Fruitflow lowers blood pressure in pre-hypertensive males: a randomised, placebo controlled, double blind, cross-over study.The consumption of lycopene and tomato-based food products is not associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes in women.Prolonged tomato juice consumption has no effect on cell-mediated immunity of well-nourished elderly men and women.Wolak T, Sharoni Y, Levy J, Linnewiel-Hermoni K, Stepensky D, Paran E.
Effect of Tomato Nutrient Complex on Blood Pressure: A Double Blind, Randomized Dose?Response Study.The role of tomato products and lycopene in the prevention of gastric cancer: a meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies. .
Can You Eat Tomato Leaves?
That’s why if you hear “nightshade,” you might also think “deadly nightshade.” And even though tomatoes do contain some of the harmful compounds in their poisonous counterparts, their leaves, stems and fruit won’t hurt you a bit.“Sturdy” includes vegetable tops like carrot, turnip, beet sweet potato and cauliflower greens, plus collards, kale, cabbage and other produce that generally takes longer to become tender.The leaves do sport a strong herbal aroma, she adds, and recommends blending them into a pesto, combined with mint, basil and other garden herbs. .
18 Amazing Benefits Of Tomatoes For Skin, Hair, And Health
Scientifically called Solanum lycopersicum, the tomato originated in the Central and South Americas.It comes in numerous varieties that are grown in temperate climates in various parts of the world.Tomatoes are exceptionally beneficial for people who want to lose weight and maintain their blood pressure levels.At some point in history, the Europeans considered tomatoes to be poisonous, given their shiny appearance.With the passing of the centuries, the cultivation spread to Asia, and as of today, China and India are the top producers of tomato in the world.The tomato is referred to as the functional food – meaning it goes way beyond just providing basic nutrition.One major reason is the presence of lycopene, the all-powerful antioxidant that enhances health in numerous ways.The leaves of the tomato plant are 4 to 10 inches long, and both the stem and the leaf are hairy.According to the American Institute for Cancer Research, lycopene in tomatoes could be responsible for the fruit’s anticancer properties (1).Its potent antioxidant properties have been found to neutralize free radicals that are generated in our bodies due to various reasons.Even laboratory studies show that tomato components have prevented the proliferation of several cancer cell types.However, it is important to consume a variety of foods (and not just tomatoes) to combat cancer, or any disease for that matter.Given their high antioxidant levels, tomatoes are a great choice for combating breast cancer (4).Higher lycopene intake has also been linked to a lower risk of lung, colon, oral, and cervical cancers.Cancer cells can remain dormant for years until some chemical reaction triggers them and they attach themselves to the body’s blood supply.Lycopene was found to disrupt this linking process, thereby preventing the cancer cells from growing further (5).Another reason tomatoes help fight cancer is adiponectin, a potent compound in the fruit.According to the American Heart Association, the recommended intake of potassium for an average adult is 4,700 mg per day.As per an Israeli study, short-term treatment with tomato extract can help lower blood pressure in patients (8).Studies have concluded that lycopene supplements can have beneficial effects towards blood pressure.But the best option would be fresh tomatoes – as they are the richest in potassium and can have the best blood pressure-lowering effects (12).Apart from being a great source of antioxidants, tomatoes are also rich in fiber and are low in calories.Hence, they promote satiety and even reduce calorie intake, thereby helping with weight loss.They help cure large pores, treat acne, soothe sunburn, and revive dull skin.The antioxidants in tomato, especially lycopene, fight cellular damage and skin inflammation.Studies have shown that eating tomatoes also protect the skin from the ill effects of sun exposure (14).Other studies have found an improvement in the skin’s ability to protect itself from the UV radiation in women who ate tomato paste.According to one Boston study, antioxidants like lycopene help enhance skin health to a great extent (15).This vitamin also assists in the proper absorption of iron in the body, another vital nutrient during pregnancy.Though taking iron supplements during pregnancy is advisable, eating tomatoes can have its benefits.And according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the vitamin C in tomatoes helps protect both the woman and the baby (18).According to another Mexican study, consumption of raw tomatoes (14 servings a week for a month) can have a beneficial effect on cholesterol levels in overweight women (20).One article by the Harvard Medical School includes tomatoes as one of the must-have foods for lowering cholesterol (21).Tomatoes are also rich sources of beta-carotene, folate, and flavonoids – all of which are beneficial for cardiovascular health.The nutrients in tomatoes also help reduce homocysteine and platelet aggregation, two phenomena that can have undesirable effects on heart health (23).In another study by the University of Connecticut, tomato juice was found to possess cardioprotective abilities, which weren’t related to lycopene in any way (the revelation was made for the first time).Though the results are conflicting with what we have seen about lycopene so far, tomatoes still are one of those foods important for heart health (24).The findings remained consistent even after considering other factors like age, BMI, LDL cholesterol, blood pressure, and smoking (25).Lower levels of vitamin C in this aspect can result in heart disease and cancer.If you are a pregnant woman who smokes (which shouldn’t be the case in the first place), you have a higher need for vitamin C (27).A report published by Cornell University found that the lycopene in tomatoes can scavenge up to 90% of the free radicals in the body (28).Lycopene in tomatoes counters free radical damage, which can otherwise affect your eyes.A study conducted in 2011 discovered that people with higher lycopene levels had a lower risk of age-related macular degeneration.While the former might fight age-related cataracts, the latter helps produce melanin – the important black pigment in the eyes.A quick tip – if you are choosing tomatoes in the cooler months, go for the canned variety.One report also talks about the efficacy of lycopene in tomatoes in preventing gastric cancer (31).Eating antioxidant-rich foods like tomatoes can also help you deal with gastritis, a condition in which the stomach lining is inflamed (32).Tomatoes also have a low glycemic index (the ability of a particular food to increase blood sugar levels), which can be a bonus for diabetics.As per an Indian study, long-term supplementation of tomatoes was linked to beneficial effects in patients with diabetes mellitus.An Iranian study concluded that consuming 200 grams of raw tomatoes every day had a favorable effect on the blood pressure levels in type 2 diabetes patients (35).The lycopene in tomatoes, along with other compounds, was also found to have a positive effect on the oxidative stress in diabetes patients (36).According to another Turkey study, fresh tomato juice might help in preventing urinary stone formation (37).As per a report by the Michigan State University, consuming tomatoes can reduce the risk of gallstones as well as kidney stones (38).You can also make fresh salsa and add tomatoes as a topping on salads, meat, or eggs.According to The Daily Telegraph, having just two glasses of tomato juice a day can strengthen your bones and prevent osteoporosis.The vitamin C in tomatoes is also crucial for bone formation and the synthesis of connective tissue.Even the lutein in tomatoes promotes collagen formation, which helps boost bone health.In one study, a tomato-rich diet had enhanced the functioning of the white blood cells in test subjects.The white blood cells, which are known for fighting infections, sustained 38 percent less damage from free radicals.According to a German study, supplementing a low-carotenoid diet with tomatoes might enhance immune function (41).Tomatoes also contain three other antioxidants called zeta-carotene, phytofluene, and phytoene – which are found together in most brightly-colored fruits and veggies.These antioxidants help fight inflammation and the associated diseases like cancer and arthritis.The best way to go about it is to consume cooked/processed and raw tomatoes on a regular basis, and not just stick to one form.Harvard Medical School ranks tomatoes as one of the best foods for combating inflammation, and a must-have in everyone’s diet (44).You can simply roast whole cherry tomatoes with a few garlic cloves and crush them.Your brain, given the high concentration of omega-3 fatty acids, is particularly vulnerable to damage by free radicals.This is because the carotenoids in tomatoes are dissolved in fat (olive oil) and are easily absorbed by the blood.According to an article published by the Western Governors University, tomatoes aid cognitive function and concentration (50).A quick tip – when in the season, go for fresh tomatoes to reap the benefits of lycopene and other essential nutrients.And here’s a super fact for you – the liver is the only organ in the human body that is capable of natural regeneration.According to one study, increased intake of tomato has been linked to a lowered risk of liver cancer (53).Tomato extract was also found to offer protection against liver inflammation caused by a high-fat diet.As per another Californian study, green tomato extracts containing tomatine (a toxic substance found in the stems and leaves of tomato plants) can inhibit the growth of liver cancer cells (54).There was a study carried out by the research scientists from the University of Barcelona and the Institute of Health in Spain.They had higher concentrations of flavones like phenolic and hydroxycinnamoylquinic acids, flavanones like naringenin, and flavonols like quercetin and rutin.Organic tomatoes were also found to have double the concentration of kaempferol, another flavonoid with potent antioxidant properties.Conventionally grown tomatoes receive commercial fertilizer made of soluble inorganic nitrogen.This organic material must first be broken down by the microbes in the soil, post which the nitrogen is released to the plants.More interestingly, organic tomatoes don’t receive any pesticides to protect the fruit from pests.Simply put – making life less easy for tomatoes (or any food, for that matter) can bring about improvements in quality.Coming to storage, ensure you put fresh and ripe tomatoes in a cool and dark place.If opened, you can store them in a covered glass container in the refrigerator for up to a week.If you love pasta dishes, replace all those creamy sauces with something made of tomatoes.Tomatoes are very low in calories, and are rich in fiber, folate, vitamin C, and other antioxidants and phytonutrients.As you stir, add cream cheese and cook over medium heat until it turns thick.Some research suggests that all the parts of the plant, except the tomato, could lead to digestive upset (57).Tomatoes (the soup, especially) also contain salicylates, glutamates, and amines – all of which are natural food chemicals that might trigger constipation.A theory suggests that lycopene releases the growth hormone in your body, which results in fat breakdown, giving a boost to your metabolism.One advantage sun dried tomatoes might have over their counterparts is they don’t deteriorate as rapidly.Talking about iron, a cup of chopped tomatoes contains just about 0.49 mg of the mineral.But in case you are suffering from kidney or prostate disorders, stay away from them as certain studies suggest against their intake.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3757421/ New evidence that a heart-healthy diet also helps fight prostate cancer, Harvard Medical School.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC80172/ The Potential Role of Lycopene for the Prevention and Therapy of Prostate Cancer: From Molecular Mechanisms to Clinical Evidence, International Journal of Molecular Sciences, US National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5974099/ How Potassium Can Help Control High Blood Pressure, American Heart Association.https://www.heart.org/en/health-topics/high-blood-pressure/changes-you-can-make-to-manage-high-blood-pressure/how-potassium-can-help-control-high-blood-pressure#.WUosWsx943V Natural antioxidants from tomato extract reduce blood pressure in patients with grade-1 hypertension: a double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study, American Heart Journal, US National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health.https://www.csuchico.edu/~dmccafferty/Tomatoes%20Even%20Better%20for%20You%20Than%20You%20Thought!.htm Tomatoes are a healthy summer favorite, Michigan State University.https://www.canr.msu.edu/news/tomatoes_and_the_science_behind_them Tomato juice supplementation in young women reduces inflammatory adipokine levels independently of body fat reduction, Nutrition, US National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22254062 Supplements for Skin Health Clinical Tool, Ebling Labs.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3850026/ Effect of tomato consumption on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level: a randomized, single-blinded, controlled clinical trial, Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy, US National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health.https://www.health.harvard.edu/heart-health/how-to-lower-your-cholesterol-without-drugs Protective effect of lycopene on serum cholesterol and blood pressure: Meta-analyses of intervention trials, Maturitas, The European Menopause Journal.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16032783 Tomatoes Lower Men’s Stroke Risk, Tufts University.https://www.nutritionletter.tufts.edu/issues/9_1/current-articles/Tomatoes-Lower-Mens-Stroke-Risk_940-1.html Tomatoes, red, ripe, raw, year round average, US Department of Agriculture.https://www.diabetes.org/nutrition/healthy-food-choices-made-easy/diabetes-superfoods Effect of long term supplementation of tomatoes (cooked) on levels of antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation rate, lipid profile and glycated haemoglobin in Type 2 diabetes mellitus, The West Indian Medical Journal, US National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17249316 The effects of tomato consumption on serum glucose, apolipoprotein B, apolipoprotein A-I, homocysteine and blood pressure in type 2 diabetic patients, International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, US National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health.https://www.uaex.edu/publications/PDF/FSFCS83.pdf Supplementation of a low-carotenoid diet with tomato or carrot juice modulates immune functions in healthy men, Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism, US National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20491642 BIOACTIVE COMPONENTS OF TOMATO AND THEIR ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTION, United States Department of Agriculture.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6558668/ Brain fuel: 5 food groups for successful students, Western Governors University.https://www.wgu.edu/blog/brain-fuel-5-food-groups-successful-students1712.html Foods that make you smarter, Mercer County Community College.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3834971/ Tomatine-containing green tomato extracts inhibit growth of human breast, colon, liver, and stomach cancer cells, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, US National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19514731 Dietary tomato powder inhibits alcohol-induced hepatic injury by suppressing cytochrome p450 2E1 induction in rodent models, Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, US National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health. .
Tomato: Uses, Side Effects, Dose, Health Benefits, Precautions
Tomato is used for preventing cancer of the breast, bladder, cervix, colon and rectum, stomach, lung, ovaries, pancreas, and prostate.Some people use tomato to treat high blood pressure, osteoarthritis, the common cold, chills, and digestive disorders. .
 The tomato is consumed in diverse ways, raw or cooked, in many dishes, sauces, salads, and drinks.(Determinate, or bush, plants are annuals that stop growing at a certain height and produce a crop all at once.). The native Mexican tomatillo is tomate (Nahuatl: tomātl (help·info) , meaning 'fat water' or 'fat thing'). In this capacity, it has even become an American and British slang term: saying " " when presented with two choices can mean "What's the difference?".Encyclopedia Britannica, tomatoes are a fruit labeled in grocery stores as a vegetable due to (the taste) and nutritional purposes.According to, tomatoes are a fruit labeled in grocery stores as a vegetable due to (the taste) and nutritional purposes.Tomatoes are not the only food source with this ambiguity; bell peppers, cucumbers, green beans, eggplants, avocados, and squashes of all kinds (such as zucchini and pumpkins) are all botanically fruit, yet cooked as vegetables.In 1887, U.S. tariff laws that imposed a duty on vegetables, but not on fruit, caused the tomato's status to become a matter of legal importance. The holding of this case applies only to the interpretation of the Tariff of 1883, and the court did not purport to reclassify the tomato for botanical or other purposes.Indeterminate types are "tender" perennials, dying annually in temperate climates (they are originally native to tropical highlands), although they can live up to three years in a greenhouse in some cases.Tomato vines are typically pubescent, meaning covered with fine short hairs.Their flowers, appearing on the apical meristem, have the anthers fused along the edges, forming a column surrounding the pistil's style.Although in culinary terms, tomato is regarded as a vegetable, its fruit is classified botanically as a berry. As a true fruit, it develops from the ovary of the plant after fertilization, its flesh comprising the pericarp walls.The fruit contains hollow spaces full of seeds and moisture, called locular cavities.On the other hand, hybrids of tomato and diploid potato can be created in the lab by somatic fusion, and are partially fertile, providing evidence of the close relationship between these species.The first commercially available genetically modified food was a variety of tomato named the Flavr Savr, which was engineered to have a longer shelf life. Scientists are continuing to develop tomatoes with new traits not found in natural crops, such as increased resistance to pests or environmental stresses.Other projects aim to enrich tomatoes with substances that may offer health benefits or provide better nutrition.These efforts have resulted in significant regionally adapted breeding lines and hybrids, such as the Mountain series from North Carolina.It was regarded with suspicion as a food because botanists recognized it as a nightshade, a relative of the poisonous belladonna.The exact date of domestication is unknown; by 500 BC, it was already being cultivated in southern Mexico and probably other areas.: 13 The Pueblo people are thought to have believed that those who witnessed the ingestion of tomato seeds were blessed with powers of divination. Bernardino de Sahagún reported seeing a great variety of tomatoes in the Aztec market at Tenochtitlán (Mexico City): “.The earliest discussion of the tomato in European literature appeared in a herbal written in 1544 by Pietro Andrea Mattioli, an Italian physician and botanist, who suggested that a new type of eggplant had been brought to Italy that was blood red or golden color when mature and could be divided into segments and eaten like an eggplant—that is, cooked and seasoned with salt, black pepper, and oil.It was not until ten years later that tomatoes were named in print by Mattioli as pomi d'oro, or "golden apples".The recorded history of tomatoes in Italy dates back to at least 31 October 1548, when the house steward of Cosimo de' Medici, the grand duke of Tuscany, wrote to the Medici private secretary informing him that the basket of tomatoes sent from the grand duke's Florentine estate at Torre del Gallo "had arrived safely". Tomatoes were grown mainly as ornamentals early on after their arrival in Italy.For example, the Florentine aristocrat Giovanvettorio Soderini wrote how they "were to be sought only for their beauty", and were grown only in gardens or flower beds.The tomato's ability to mutate and create new and different varieties helped contribute to its success and spread throughout Italy. In certain areas of Italy, such as Florence, the fruit was used solely as a tabletop decoration, until it was incorporated into the local cuisine in the late 17th or early 18th century.: 17 Gerard's Herbal, published in 1597, and largely plagiarized from continental sources,: 17 is also one of the earliest discussions of the tomato in England.: 17 Nonetheless, he believed it was poisonous: 17 (in fact, the plant and raw fruit do have low levels of tomatine, but are not generally dangerous; see below).Gerard's views were influential, and the tomato was considered unfit for eating (though not necessarily poisonous) for many years in Britain and its North American colonies.Even today, in Bengal, the alternative name is "Biliti Begun" (Bengali: বিলিতি বেগুন), meaning "Foreign Eggplant" It was then adopted widely as it is well suited to India's climate, with Uttarakhand as one of the main producers.The tomato was introduced to cultivation in the Middle East by John Barker, British consul in Aleppo circa 1799 to 1825.The earliest reference to tomatoes being grown in British North America is from 1710, when herbalist William Salmon reported seeing them in what is today South Carolina.Possibly, some people continued to think tomatoes were poisonous at this time; and in general, they were grown more as ornamental plants than as food.Early tomato breeders included Henry Tilden in Iowa and a Dr.
Hand in Baltimore.Alexander W. Livingston receives much credit for developing numerous varieties of tomato for both home and commercial gardeners. The U.S.
Department of Agriculture's 1937 yearbook declared that "half of the major varieties were a result of the abilities of the Livingstons to evaluate and perpetuate superior material in the tomato.".Because of the long growing season needed for this heat-loving crop, several states in the US Sun Belt became major tomato-producers, particularly Florida and California.In California, tomatoes are grown under irrigation for both the fresh fruit market and for canning and processing. The center is named for the late Dr. Charles M. Rick, a pioneer in tomato genetics research.This change occurred after discovery of a mutant "u" phenotype in the mid 20th century that ripened "u"niformly.This was widely cross-bred to produce red fruit without the typical green ring around the stem on uncross-bred varieties.Prior to general introduction of this trait, most tomatoes produced more sugar during ripening, and were sweeter and more flavorful.Hence genetic design of a commercial variety that combines the advantages of types u and U requires fine tuning, but may be feasible.For instance, linkage drag is a phenomenon that has been responsible for alterations in the metabolism of the tomato fruit.Linkage drag describes the introduction of an undesired trait or allele into a plant during backcrossing.Thus, breeding efforts attempting to enhance certain traits (for example: larger fruit size) have unintentionally altered production of chemicals associated with, for instance, nutritional value and flavor.However, this tactic has limitations, for the incorporation of certain traits, such as pathogen resistance, can negatively impact other favorable phenotypes (fruit production, etc.).Handling cigarettes and other infected tobacco products can transmit the virus to tomato plants.Another particularly dreaded disease is curly top, carried by the beet leafhopper, which interrupts the lifecycle.As the name implies, it has the symptom of making the top leaves of the plant wrinkle up and grow abnormally.Systemin activates defensive mechanisms, such as the production of protease inhibitors to slow the growth of insects.In addition, a deformity called cat-facing can be caused by pests, temperature stress, or poor soil conditions.Several species of umbellifer are therefore often grown with tomato plants, including parsley, Queen Anne's lace, and occasionally dill.As a floral device to reduce selfing, the pistil of wild tomatoes extends farther out of the flower than today's cultivars.That tomatoes pollinate themselves poorly without outside aid is clearly shown in greenhouse situations, where pollination must be aided by artificial wind, vibration of the plants (one brand of vibrator is a wand called an "electric bee" that is used manually), or more often today, by cultured bumblebees. The anther of a tomato flower is shaped like a hollow tube, with the pollen produced within the structure, rather than on the surface, as in most species.In an outdoors setting, wind or animals usually provide sufficient motion to produce commercially viable crops.Meiosis is central to the processes by which diploid microspore mother cells within the anther give rise to haploid pollen grains, and megaspore mother cells in ovules that are contained within the ovary give rise to haploid nuclei.Fertilization leads to the formation of a diploid zygote that can then develop into an embryo within the emerging seed.In more temperate climates, it is not uncommon to start seeds in greenhouses during the late winter for future transplant.In 1994, Calgene introduced a genetically modified tomato called the FlavrSavr, which could be vine ripened without compromising shelf life.As of 2008, the heaviest tomato harvested, weighed 3.51 kg (7 lb 12 oz), was of the cultivar "Delicious", and was grown by Gordon Graham of Edmond, Oklahoma in 1986.The plant has been recognized as a Guinness World Record Holder, with a harvest of more than 32,000 tomatoes and a total weight of 522 kg (1,151 lb).Yong Huang, Epcot's manager of agricultural science, discovered the unique plant in Beijing, China.Huang brought its seeds to Epcot and created the specialized greenhouse for the fruit to grow.The vine grew golf ball-sized tomatoes, which were served at Walt Disney World restaurants.In 2019, world production of tomatoes was 181 million tonnes, with China accounting for 35% of the total, followed by India and Turkey as major producers (see table).Though it is botanically a berry, a subset of fruit, the tomato is a vegetable for culinary purposes because of its savoury flavour (see above).Ripe tomatoes contain significant umami flavor and they are a key ingredient in pizza, and are commonly used in pasta sauces.It is used in diverse ways, including raw in salads or in slices, stewed, incorporated into a wide variety of dishes, or processed into ketchup or tomato soup.The leaves, stem, and green unripe fruit of the tomato plant contain small amounts of the alkaloid tomatine, whose effect on humans has not been studied. They also contain small amounts of solanine, a toxic alkaloid found in potato leaves and other plants in the nightshade family.Compared to potatoes, the amount of solanine in unripe green or fully ripe tomatoes is low.100 g of raw tomatoes supply 18 kilocalories and are a moderate source of vitamin C (17% of the Daily Value), but otherwise have no significant nutrient content (table).There is no conclusive evidence to indicate that the lycopene in tomatoes or in supplements affects the onset of cardiovascular diseases or cancer. In a scientific review of potential claims for lycopene favorably affecting DNA, skin exposed to ultraviolet radiation, heart function and vision, the European Food Safety Authority concluded that the evidence for lycopene having any of these effects was inconclusive.Female P.
operculella use the leaves to lay their eggs and the hatched larvae will eat away at the mesophyll of the leaf.The town of Buñol, Spain, annually celebrates La Tomatina, a festival centered on an enormous tomato fight.Flavr Savr was the first commercially grown genetically engineered food licensed for human consumption.Embracing it for this protest connotation, the Dutch Socialist party adopted the tomato as their logo. .
7 Health Benefits of Tomatoes
Other studies have shown that higher blood levels of lycopene are tied to lower death rates for people with metabolic syndrome, a cluster of risk factors that raise the chances of developing heart disease, diabetes, and stroke.Tomatoes may be a protective food for people with type 2 diabetes: In one study, people with diabetes who supplemented with cooked tomatoes for 30 days experienced a decrease in lipid peroxidation, a chain reaction in which substances called free radicals attack fat, leading to damage that ups the risk of heart disease.A 2011 study found that the combination of tomato paste and olive oil protected against sun damage, and boosted the production of pro-collagen, a molecule that gives the skin its structure and keeps it firm and youthful.It’s at its highest concentration when tomatoes have been cooked, and olive oil boosts its absorption from your digestive system into your bloodstream.Observational studies have found links between the superstar compound lycopene and fewer incidences of prostate, ovarian, lung, and stomach cancers.Dress fresh greens or steamed veggies with sundried tomato pesto, or drizzle it over broiled fish.Add salsa to scrambled eggs or taco salad, or spoon onto cooked fish, black beans, or brown rice. .