A nickname for the fruit was the “poison apple” because it was thought that aristocrats got sick and died after eating them, but the truth of the matter was that wealthy Europeans used pewter plates, which were high in lead content.Before the fruit made its way to the table in North America, it was classified as a deadly nightshade, a poisonous family of Solanaceae plants that contain toxins called tropane alkaloids.Like similar fruits and vegetables in the solanaceae family—the eggplant for example, the tomato garnered a shady reputation for being both poisonous and a source of temptation.But what really did the tomato in, according to Smith’s research, was John Gerard’s publication of Herball in 1597 which drew heavily from the agricultural works of Dodoens and l’Ecluse (1553).According to Smith, most of the information (which was inaccurate to begin with) was plagiarized by Gerard, a barber-surgeon who misspelled words like Lycoperticum in the collection’s rushed final product.Gerard’s opinion of the tomato, though based on a fallacy, prevailed in Britain and in the British North American colonies for over 200 years.In the early 16th century, Spanish conquistadors returning from expeditions in Mexico and other parts of Mesoamerica were thought to have first introduced the seeds to southern Europe.By 1822, hundreds of tomato recipes appeared in local periodicals and newspapers, but fears and rumors of the plant’s potential poison lingered.According to The Illustrated Annual Register of Rural Affairs and Cultivator Almanac (1867) edited by J.J. Thomas, it was believed that a mere brush with such a worm could result in death.The tomato in all of our gardens is infested with a very large thick-bodied green worm, with oblique white sterols along its sides, and a curved thorn-like horn at the end of its back.Around the same time period, a man by the name of Dr.
Fuller in New York was quoted in The Syracuse Standard, saying he had found a five-inch tomato worm in his garden. .
 The tomato is consumed in diverse ways, raw or cooked, in many dishes, sauces, salads, and drinks. In this capacity, it has even become an American and British slang term: saying " " when presented with two choices can mean "What's the difference?".Indeterminate types are "tender" perennials, dying annually in temperate climates (they are originally native to tropical highlands), although they can live up to three years in a greenhouse in some cases.Tomato vines are typically pubescent, meaning covered with fine short hairs.Their flowers, appearing on the apical meristem, have the anthers fused along the edges, forming a column surrounding the pistil's style.Although in culinary terms, tomato is regarded as a vegetable, its fruit is classified botanically as a berry. As a true fruit, it develops from the ovary of the plant after fertilization, its flesh comprising the pericarp walls.The fruit contains hollow spaces full of seeds and moisture, called locular cavities.On the other hand, hybrids of tomato and diploid potato can be created in the lab by somatic fusion, and are partially fertile, providing evidence of the close relationship between these species. The latest reference genome published in 2021 had 799 MB and encodes 34,384 (predicted) proteins, spread over 12 chromosomes.The first commercially available genetically modified food was a tomato called Flavr Savr, which was engineered to have a longer shelf life.Scientists are continuing to develop tomatoes with new traits not found in natural crops, such as increased resistance to pests or environmental stresses or better flavor.These efforts have resulted in significant regionally adapted breeding lines and hybrids, such as the Mountain series from North Carolina.Encyclopedia Britannica, tomatoes are a fruit labeled in grocery stores as a vegetable due to (the taste) and nutritional purposes.According to, tomatoes are a fruit labeled in grocery stores as a vegetable due to (the taste) and nutritional purposes.Tomatoes are not the only food source with this ambiguity; bell peppers, cucumbers, green beans, eggplants, avocados, and squashes of all kinds (such as zucchini and pumpkins) are all botanically fruit, yet cooked as vegetables.In 1887, U.S. tariff laws that imposed a duty on vegetables, but not on fruit, caused the tomato's status to become a matter of legal importance. The holding of this case applies only to the interpretation of the Tariff of 1883, and the court did not purport to reclassify the tomato for botanical or other purposes. The first evidence of domestication points to the Aztecs and other peoples in Mesoamerica, who used the fruit fresh and in their cooking.It was regarded with suspicion as a food because botanists recognized it as a nightshade, a relative of the poisonous belladonna, famous for being used by the state of Athens to execute Socrates.The exact date of domestication is unknown; by 500 BC, it was already being cultivated in southern Mexico and probably other areas.: 13 The Pueblo people are thought to have believed that those who witnessed the ingestion of tomato seeds were blessed with powers of divination. Bernardino de Sahagún reported seeing a great variety of tomatoes in the Aztec market at Tenochtitlán (Mexico City): “.The earliest discussion of the tomato in European literature appeared in a herbal written in 1544 by Pietro Andrea Mattioli, an Italian physician and botanist, who suggested that a new type of eggplant had been brought to Italy that was blood red or golden color when mature and could be divided into segments and eaten like an eggplant—that is, cooked and seasoned with salt, black pepper, and oil.It was not until ten years later that tomatoes were named in print by Mattioli as pomi d'oro, or "golden apples".The recorded history of tomatoes in Italy dates back to at least 31 October 1548, when the house steward of Cosimo de' Medici, the grand duke of Tuscany, wrote to the Medici private secretary informing him that the basket of tomatoes sent from the grand duke's Florentine estate at Torre del Gallo "had arrived safely". Tomatoes were grown mainly as ornamentals early on after their arrival in Italy.For example, the Florentine aristocrat Giovanvettorio Soderini wrote how they "were to be sought only for their beauty", and were grown only in gardens or flower beds.The tomato's ability to mutate and create new and different varieties helped contribute to its success and spread throughout Italy. In certain areas of Italy, such as Florence, the fruit was used solely as a tabletop decoration, until it was incorporated into the local cuisine in the late 17th or early 18th century.: 17 Gerard's Herbal, published in 1597, and largely plagiarized from continental sources,: 17 is also one of the earliest discussions of the tomato in England.: 17 Nonetheless, he believed it was poisonous: 17 (in fact, the plant and raw fruit do have low levels of tomatine, but are not generally dangerous; see below).Gerard's views were influential, and the tomato was considered unfit for eating (though not necessarily poisonous) for many years in Britain and its North American colonies.Even today, in Bengal, the alternative name is "Biliti Begun" (Bengali: বিলিতি বেগুন), meaning "Foreign Eggplant" It was then adopted widely as it is well suited to India's climate, with Uttarakhand as one of the main producers.The tomato was introduced to cultivation in the Middle East by John Barker, British consul in Aleppo circa 1799 to 1825.The earliest reference to tomatoes being grown in British North America is from 1710, when herbalist William Salmon reported seeing them in what is today South Carolina.Possibly, some people continued to think tomatoes were poisonous at this time; and in general, they were grown more as ornamental plants than as food.: 28 Some early American advocates of the culinary use of the tomato included Michele Felice Cornè and Robert Gibbon Johnson.Alexander W.
Livingston receives much credit for developing numerous varieties of tomato for both home and commercial gardeners. The U.S. Department of Agriculture's 1937 yearbook declared that "half of the major varieties were a result of the abilities of the Livingstons to evaluate and perpetuate superior material in the tomato.".Because of the long growing season needed for this heat-loving crop, several states in the US Sun Belt became major tomato-producers, particularly Florida and California.In California, tomatoes are grown under irrigation for both the fresh fruit market and for canning and processing. The center is named for the late Dr. Charles M. Rick, a pioneer in tomato genetics research.This change occurred after discovery of a mutant "u" phenotype in the mid 20th century that ripened "u"niformly.This was widely cross-bred to produce red fruit without the typical green ring around the stem on uncross-bred varieties.Prior to general introduction of this trait, most tomatoes produced more sugar during ripening, and were sweeter and more flavorful.Hence genetic design of a commercial variety that combines the advantages of types u and U requires fine tuning, but may be feasible. However, these breeding efforts have yielded unintended negative consequences on various tomato fruit attributes.For instance, linkage drag is a phenomenon that has been responsible for alterations in the metabolism of the tomato fruit.Thus, breeding efforts attempting to enhance certain traits (for example: larger fruit size) have unintentionally altered production of chemicals associated with, for instance, nutritional value and flavor.However, this tactic has limitations, for the incorporation of certain traits, such as pathogen resistance, can negatively impact other favorable phenotypes (fruit production, etc.).Handling cigarettes and other infected tobacco products can transmit the virus to tomato plants.As the name implies, it has the symptom of making the top leaves of the plant wrinkle up and grow abnormally.Systemin activates defensive mechanisms, such as the production of protease inhibitors to slow the growth of insects.In addition, a deformity called cat-facing can be caused by pests, temperature stress, or poor soil conditions.Several species of umbellifer are therefore often grown with tomato plants, including parsley, Queen Anne's lace, and occasionally dill.As a floral device to reduce selfing, the pistil of wild tomatoes extends farther out of the flower than today's cultivars.That tomatoes pollinate themselves poorly without outside aid is clearly shown in greenhouse situations, where pollination must be aided by artificial wind, vibration of the plants (one brand of vibrator is a wand called an "electric bee" that is used manually), or more often today, by cultured bumblebees. The anther of a tomato flower is shaped like a hollow tube, with the pollen produced within the structure, rather than on the surface, as in most species.In an outdoors setting, wind or animals usually provide sufficient motion to produce commercially viable crops.Meiosis is central to the processes by which diploid microspore mother cells within the anther give rise to haploid pollen grains, and megaspore mother cells in ovules that are contained within the ovary give rise to haploid nuclei.Fertilization leads to the formation of a diploid zygote that can then develop into an embryo within the emerging seed.In more temperate climates, it is not uncommon to start seeds in greenhouses during the late winter for future transplant.In 1994, Calgene introduced a genetically modified tomato called the FlavrSavr, which could be vine ripened without compromising shelf life.As of 2008, the heaviest tomato harvested, weighed 3.51 kg (7 lb 12 oz), was of the cultivar "Delicious", and was grown by Gordon Graham of Edmond, Oklahoma in 1986.The plant has been recognized as a Guinness World Record Holder, with a harvest of more than 32,000 tomatoes and a total weight of 522 kg (1,151 lb).[full citation needed] It yielded thousands of tomatoes at one time from a single vine.Yong Huang, Epcot's manager of agricultural science, discovered the unique plant in Beijing, China.Huang brought its seeds to Epcot and created the specialized greenhouse for the fruit to grow.The vine grew golf ball-sized tomatoes, which were served at Walt Disney World restaurants. The tree developed a disease and was removed in April 2010 after about 13 months of life.In 2019, world production of tomatoes was 181 million tonnes, with China accounting for 35% of the total, followed by India and Turkey as major producers (see table).Though it is botanically a berry, a subset of fruit, the tomato is a vegetable for culinary purposes because of its savoury flavour (see above).Ripe tomatoes contain significant umami flavor and they are a key ingredient in pizza, and are commonly used in pasta sauces.It is used in diverse ways, including raw in salads or in slices, stewed, incorporated into a wide variety of dishes, or processed into ketchup or tomato soup.The leaves, stem, and green unripe fruit of the tomato plant contain small amounts of the alkaloid tomatine, whose effect on humans has not been studied. They also contain small amounts of solanine, a toxic alkaloid found in potato leaves and other plants in the nightshade family.Compared to potatoes, the amount of solanine in unripe green or fully ripe tomatoes is low.100 g of raw tomatoes supply 18 kilocalories and are a moderate source of vitamin C (17% of the Daily Value), but otherwise have no significant nutrient content (table).There is no conclusive evidence to indicate that the lycopene in tomatoes or in supplements affects the onset of cardiovascular diseases or cancer. In a scientific review of potential claims for lycopene favorably affecting DNA, skin exposed to ultraviolet radiation, heart function and vision, the European Food Safety Authority concluded that the evidence for lycopene having any of these effects was inconclusive.Female P. operculella use the leaves to lay their eggs and the hatched larvae will eat away at the mesophyll of the leaf.The town of Buñol, Spain, annually celebrates La Tomatina, a festival centered on an enormous tomato fight.Flavr Savr was the first commercially grown genetically engineered food licensed for human consumption.Embracing it for this protest connotation, the Dutch Socialist party adopted the tomato as their logo. .
The Tomato Had To Go Abroad To Make Good
0ne of the strangest things about the history of the tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) is the fact that, although it is of American origin, it was unknown as food in this country until long after it was commonly eaten in Europe.Moderate altitudes in that mountainous land abound today in a wide range of forms of tomato, both wild and cultivated.The cultivated tomato is very tender to cold and also rather intolerant of extremely hot or dry weather, a characteristic reflecting the nature of the climate in which it originated.Presumably the cultivated species of tomato was carried from the slopes of the Andes northward into Central America and Mexico in the same way as maize, by a prehistoric migration of Indians.Because of the highly perishable nature of the fruit, it seems likely that the tomato was among the last of the native American species to be adopted as a cultivated food plant by the Indians and that it remained of little importance until after the arrival of the white man.It was supposedly introduced to Philadelphia by a French refugee from Santo Domingo in 1789 and to Salem, Massachusetts, in 1802 by an Italian painter.It has been cultivated and bred so assiduously in Europe that European varieties are now contributing important characters to the improvement of the crop in the United States. .
What Was Italian Food Like Before Tomatoes?
The diet would have varied depending on region, as well: fish featured heavily near the coast, while inland communities would rely more on pork and wild game.In 1544, the tomato appeared in an herbal guide by Pietro Andrea Mattoli, who called it the Pomo d’oro, or golden apple – which is where we get pomodoro today.In any case, the tomato quickly became a permanent fixture in Italian cuisine, with farmers selectively breeding the plant into the larger, red varietals we know and love today. .
Finally in the last few centuries this South American plant managed to spread all across the world, becoming one of the best know food ingredients and one of the most beloved vegetables (even though technically its classified as a fruit).The exact origin of Tomato plant is not known, although it is speculated that it evolved from the prehistoric plant Nighshade over millions of years ago in South America (together with potato, tobacco and chili peppers) and slowly moved to north until it was domesticated in the lands of Mesoamerica between Mexico and northern Costa Rica.There, seeing that tomato could grow without a problem in a warm Mediterranean climate, Spanish government started encouraging its production in both Europe and its distant colonies.His 1870s breed called Paragon became instant success in the North America, kick-starring the large tomato industry and approval from public. .
The History of Tomatoes as Food
French botanist Tournefort provided the Latin botanical name, Lycopersicon esculentum, to the tomato.The botanist mistakenly took the tomato for the wolfpeach referred to by Galen in his third century writings, ie., poison in a palatable package which was used to destroy wolves.In 1519, Cortez discovered tomatoes growing in Montezuma's gardens and brought seeds back to Europe where they were planted as ornamental curiosities, but not eaten.The French referred to the tomato as pommes d'amour, or love apples, as they thought them to have stimulating aphrodisiacal properties. .
When tomatoes first came from this side of the Atlantic to Europe
As this summer fruit comes into season on the East Coast, if they are red, ripe, and juicy, I could eat them for every meal—sprinkled with salt and drizzled in olive oil, set between two pieces of mayo-slathered bread (Harriet the Spy–style), as a BLT, the best sandwich ever invented, or in basically any combination with corn.South and Central Americans had already done the long work of domesticating the tomato plant; the seeds that Spanish travelers brought back grew lumpy red tomatoes similar to today’s “heirloom” varieties.Back in the 1980s, Rudolf Grewe, a professor of mathematical logic who spent his retirement researching food history, had tracked down these earliest examples of Europe’s culinary encounters with the tomato and published them in the Journal of Gastronomy.In a chapter covering “sour and acid plants,” Hernandez noted how people in Mexico ate tomatoes.They made, he wrote, “a delicious dip sauce from minced tomatoes, mixed with chili,” that would go with almost any dish.Though it embellishes on the basic combo of minced tomatoes and chile peppers, the main idea is the same:.Take a half a dozen tomatoes that are ripe, and put them to roast in the embers, and when they are scorched, remove the skin diligently, and mince them finely with a knife.A 1747 recipe for a “Spanish-style tomato sauce” subs in black pepper for chiles and adds parsley and garlic, as well.Until Europeans crossed the Atlantic Ocean, their hottest spices were mustard, native to the Mediterranean, and black or long pepper, imported from South Asia.When I (and two other volunteers) tasted the Aztec salsa, it burned, and I imagined what it would have been like for a person to have that flush of capsaicin heat in their mouth for the first time.The vinegar and salt helped tame the pepper, and while the thyme was a strange note, the combination worked.It tasted more like bruschetta topping than salsa, and almost definitely, by the time the recipe was published, someone had tried eating it on bread.Even if they didn’t formally record their attempts in recipe books, European cooks had been experimenting with tomatoes; bruschetta’s a simple and obvious enough innovation that no one’s given credit for it.At some point, people around Naples and in Tuscany simply started pairing tomatoes and bread.I’ve experimented with making medieval recipes before, and they’re nothing like what we expect these days from European food.These Renaissance-era dishes start to look and taste like Mediterranean food today, and tomatoes are the transformative ingredient.A modern equivalent might be Sriracha sauce, which came from a Thai town named Si Racha but which, mixed with mayo, made into hot sauce for chicken wings or used to spice shrimp for a Caesar salad, doesn’t strike Americans as a foreign food anymore.If I can understand how anyone could say no to salsa, it’s only because Europeans didn’t have perfect, salty corn chips to scoop up this American invention.If you liked this, you’ll probably enjoy Atlas Obscura’s New York Times best-selling book, which collects more than 700 of the world’s strangest and most amazing places: Atlas Obscura: An Explorer’s Guide to the World’s Hidden Wonders. .
How The Tomato Transformed The European Diet
After all, for centuries, the tomato was associated with its taxonomical group, Solanaceae, also known as the deadly nightshade family, and assumed to be poison.While today, we commonly associate the tomato with Italy, the fruit did not originate in Europe, but rather in South America.When the Spanish brought the tomato back to Europe, it was mostly used as a decorative plant — even though they were aware that the Aztecs did consume it, they believed that it was a food best eaten in cold weather.One of the earliest European references to tomatoes was made by Italian herbalist and physicist Pietro Andrae Matthioli in 1544, who classified it as not only a nightshade but a mandrake, which were known aphrodisiacs.As Naples had been part of the Spanish Empire at the time of the conquistadors (from 1504 to 1714, to be precise), the tomato’s Italian sojourn began here, in what would later be known as the capital of pizza.This continued, in part, because of the way flatware was made in Europe; the rich ate their food off of pewter, a material with high lead content.Tomatoes were actually first planted in the colonies long before: in 1710, they were referenced in Botanologia, a book by herbalist William Salmon, printed in the Carolinas.While Thomas Jefferson, who began growing them in 1781, did not bring them to the States, a feat often attributed to the early president, he did help them increase in popularity, though solely as a decorative plant.As far as culinary uses for the tomato in the early years of the States, New Orleans and Florida, with Spanish and French influences, get most of the credit. .
Tip of the Week: Tempting Tomatoes – Plant Talk
They were first brought to Central America and domesticated by the Aztec, who grew a yellow form of the cherry tomato (Lycopersicon cerasiforme) that they mixed with peppers and salt to create the first salsas.To make matters worse, the upperclass ate off of pewter plates that contained a high lead content.The first tomatoes, renamed pomi d’oro or golden apple by the Italians, where thought to be inedible; they were viewed as ornamental plants.By the 18th century, the tomato had finally cast off its bad reputation, although its botanical name, Lycopersicon esculentum, encapsulates it dubious history.Lycopersicon translates to “wolf peach,” which harkens back to its association with witchcraft, werewolves, and poison, while esculentum means “edible.”.One favorite is the story of Charlie Byles, a radiator repairman who, during the Great Depression, turned his attention to hybridizing tomatoes.Sometimes the name of the heirloom reveals either the grower or hybridizer such as ‘Livingston’s Perfection’ or ‘Aunt Ruby’s Green German’; other times it alludes to its site of origin, such as ‘Amish Paste’, ‘Arkansas Traveler’, or ‘Hillbilly’ (West Virginia).Hybrids were created to produce a higher yield and better uniformity (e.g., nice, perfectly shaped round fruit). .